Esperanto Grammar

Welcome to the 8th lesson about Esperanto grammar. We will first learn about prepositions, negation, questions, adverbs, and pronouns including: personal, object and possessive pronouns.

We will start with prepositions. In general, they are used to link words to other words. For example: I speak Esperanto and English the preposition is [and] because it connects both words Esperanto and English. The following is a list of the most used prepositions in Esperanto.

Prepositions
Esperanto
and
kaj Audio
above
super Audio
under
malsupre de Audio
before
antaŭ Audio
after
post Audio
in front of
antaŭ Audio
behind
post Audio
far from
for de Audio
near
proksime de Audio
in
en Audio
inside
en Audio
outside
ekster Audio
with
kun Audio
without
sen Audio
about
pri Audio
between
inter Audio
but
sed Audio
for
por, pro Audio
from
de, el Audio
to
al, por Audio

Preposition Grammar Rules

The following examples use prepositions in different ways and places to demonstrate how they behave in a sentence.

Prepositions + Rules
Esperanto
I eat without a knife
[preposition + noun]
mi manĝas sen tranĉilo Audio
she lives near the church
[verb + preposition]
ŝi loĝas apud la preĝejo Audio
he is taller than her
[adjective + preposition]
li estas pli alta ol ŝi Audio
he came with his small dog
[preposition + pronoun]
li akompanis sian malgrandan hundon Audio
can you come with me?
[preposition + pronoun]
ĉu vi povas akompani min? Audio

Negation in Esperanto

Now let's learn how to make a negative sentence (negation). For example: Saying no, I can't, I don't ... The following examples use negation in different ways and places to demonstrate how they behave in a sentence.

Negation + Rules
Esperanto
I understand you
[affirmative form]
mi komprenas vin Audio
I don't understand you
[negation + verb]
mi ne komprenas vin Audio
this is not the correct word
[negation + adjective]
ĉi tiu ne estas la ĝusta vorto Audio
don't leave me
[imperative negation]
ne (for)lasu min Audio
no problem
[negation + noun]
senprobleme Audio

Negative Sentences
Esperanto
I don't speak French
[negation + present tense]
mi ne parolas la francan Audio
she didn't visit Germany
[negation + past tense]
ŝi ne vizitis germanion Audio
he cannot see us
[negative modal verb]
li ne povas vidi nin Audio
can't she play chess?
[interrogative negation]
ĉu ne povas ŝi ludi ŝakon? Audio
we will not come late
[negation + future tense]
ni ne venos malfrue Audio

Questions in Esperanto

Now let's learn how to ask questions (interrogative). Such as: what, why, can you ...? Here are some common examples:

English
Esperanto
how?
kiel? Audio
what?
kio? Audio
who?
kiu? Audio
why?
kial? Audio
where?
kie? Audio

More of the interrogative form, now in a sentence:

Questions + Rules
Esperanto
where do you live?
[interrogative + verb]
kie vi loĝas? Audio
does she speak Chinese?
[interrogative verb]
ĉu ŝi parolas la ĉinan? Audio
how much is this?
[interrogative preposition]
kiom estas la kosto de ĉi tio? Audio
can I help you?
[interrogative modal verb]
per kio mi povas vin servi? Audio
what is your name?
[interrogative preposition]
kio estas via nomo? Audio

Adverbs in Esperanto

It's time to learn the adverbs in Esperanto. But what is an adverb? In general, adverbs modify verbs and adjectives. For example: You speak fast. The adverb is [fast] because it describes the verb and answers the question how do you speak?. Here is a list of the most common ones:

Adverbs
Esperanto
now
nun Audio
yesterday
hieraŭ Audio
today
hodiaŭ Audio
tonight
ĉi-nokte Audio
tomorrow
morgaŭ Audio
soon
baldaŭ Audio
quickly
rapide Audio
slowly
malrapide Audio
together
kune Audio
very
tre Audio
almost
preskaŭ Audio
always
ĉiam Audio
usually
kutime Audio
sometimes
foje, kelkfoje, fojfoje Audio
rarely
malofte Audio
never
neniam Audio

The following examples use the adverbs in different ways and places to demonstrate how it behaves in a sentence.

Adverbs + Rules
Esperanto
do you understand me now?
[pronoun + adverb]
ĉu vi komprenas min nun? Audio
I need help immediately
[noun + adverb]
mi bezonas helpon tuj Audio
she is very intelligent
[adverb + adjective]
ŝi estas tre inteligenta Audio
I will always love you
[verb + adverb]
mi ĉiam amos vin Audio
can we learn German together?
[adverb in a question]
ĉu ni povas lerni la germanan kune? Audio

Pronouns in Esperanto

We're almost done! This time we will learn the pronouns in Esperanto. In general, a pronoun can be used instead of a noun. For example instead of saying my teacher speaks 3 languages, you can use the pronoun he, and say he speaks 3 languages. Here is a list of the most common ones:

Personal Pronouns
Esperanto
I
mi Audio
you
vi Audio
he
li Audio
she
ŝi Audio
we
ni Audio
they
ili Audio

Object Pronouns
Esperanto
me
mi, min Audio
you
vi, vin Audio
him
li, lin Audio
her
ŝi, ŝin Audio
us
ni, nin Audio
them
ili, ilin Audio

Possessive Pronouns
Esperanto
my
mia Audio
your
via Audio
his
lia Audio
her
ŝia Audio
our
nia Audio
their
ilia Audio

I think it's better to put the above example in a sentence to better assist you. The following examples use pronouns in different ways and places to demonstrate how they behave in a sentence. We will start with the personal pronouns.

Personal Pronouns
Esperanto
I am your friend
[1st pronoun + verb]
mi estas via amiko Audio
you speak very fast
[2nd pronoun + adverb]
vi parolas tre rapide Audio
he has three dogs
[3rd pronoun + verb]
li havas tri hundojn Audio
she can speak German
[3rd pronoun + verb]
ŝi povas paroli la germanan Audio
we will not come late
[1st plural pronoun]
ni ne venos malfrue Audio
they bought milk and bread
[3rd plural pronoun]
ili aĉetis lakton kaj panon Audio

The object pronoun is used as a target by a verb, and usually come after that verb. For example: I gave him my book. The object pronoun here is him. Here are more examples:

Object Pronouns
Esperanto
can you tell me your name?
[1st object pronoun]
ĉu vi povas diri al mi vian nomon? Audio
I will give you money
[2nd object pronoun]
mi donos al vi monon Audio
she wrote him a letter
[3rd object pronoun]
ŝi skribis al li leteron Audio
they visited her yesterday
[3rd object pronoun]
ili vizitis ŝin hieraŭ Audio
can she help us?
[1st pl. object pronoun]
ĉu ŝi povas helpi nin? Audio
he gave them food
[3rd pl. object pronoun]
li donis al ili manĝaĵon Audio

Possessive Pronouns
Esperanto
my name is Maya
[1st possessive pronoun]
mia nomo estas maja Audio
your brother lives here
[2nd possessive pronoun]
via frato loĝas ĉi tie Audio
her mother cooks for us
[3rd possessive pronoun]
ŝia patrino kuiras por ni Audio
his hobby is reading books
[3rd possessive pronoun]
lia ŝatokupo estas la legado de libroj Audio
our dream is to visit Paris
[1st pl. possessive pronoun]
nia revo estas viziti parizon Audio
their house is not far
[3rd pl. possessive pronoun]
ilia domo ne estas fora (malproksima) Audio

One more thing you need to know is the demonstrative pronouns. They're very easy to learn.

Demonstrative Pronouns
Esperanto
this is my house
ĉi tiu estas mia domo Audio
that restaurant is far
tiu restoracio estas fora Audio
these apples are delicious
ĉi tiuj pomoj estas bongustaj Audio
those stars are shiny
tiuj steloj estas brilaj Audio

I hope you learned a lot about the Esperanto grammar in this lesson. If you have any question about this lesson please contact me here. The next lesson is below, have fun!

Esperanto Phrases   Esperanto Phrases

Esperanto Vocabulary   Esperanto Vocabulary



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Inspirational Quote: First say to yourself what you would be; and then do what you have to do. Epictetus