Bulgarian Grammar

Welcome to the 8th lesson about Bulgarian grammar. We will first learn about prepositions, negation, questions, adverbs, and pronouns including: personal, object and possessive pronouns. To hear the pronunciation, just click on the sound icon.

We will start with prepositions. In general, they are used to link words to other words. For example: I speak Bulgarian and English the preposition is [and] because it connects both words Bulgarian and English. The following is a list of the most used prepositions in Bulgarian.

Prepositions
Bulgarian
Pronunciation
and
[] Audio
above
над
[nad] Audio
under
под
[pod] Audio
before
преди
[pryedi] Audio
after
след
[slyed] Audio
in front of
пред
[pryed] Audio
behind
зад
[zad] Audio
far from
далеч от
[dalyech ot] Audio
near
близо до
[blizo do] Audio
in
в
[v] Audio
inside
вътре
[vʲtrye] Audio
outside
извън
[izvʲn] Audio
with
с
[s] Audio
without
без да
[byez da] Audio
about
за
[za] Audio
between
между
[myeʐdoo] Audio
but
но
[no] Audio
for
за
[za] Audio
from
от
[ot] Audio
to
за
[za] Audio

Preposition Grammar Rules

The following examples use prepositions in different ways and places to demonstrate how they behave in a sentence.

Prepositions + Rules
Bulgarian + Pronunciation
I eat without a knife
[preposition + noun]
Ям без нож Audio
[Yam byez noʐ]
she lives near the church
[verb + preposition]
тя живее близо до църквата Audio
[tya ʐivyeye blizo do tzʲrkvata]
he is taller than her
[adjective + preposition]
той е по-висок от нея Audio
[toy ye po-visok ot nyeya]
he came with his small dog
[preposition + pronoun]
той дойде с малкото си куче Audio
[toy doydye s malkoto si koochye]
can you come with me?
[preposition + pronoun]
може ли да дойдеш с мен? Audio
[moʐye li da doydyesh s myen?]

Negation in Bulgarian

Now let's learn how to make a negative sentence (negation). For example: Saying no, I can't, I don't ... The following examples use negation in different ways and places to demonstrate how they behave in a sentence.

Negation + Rules
Bulgarian + Pronunciation
I understand you
[affirmative form]
Ви разбирам Audio
[Vi razbiram]
I don't understand you
[negation + verb]
Не ви разбирам Audio
[Nye vi razbiram]
this is not the correct word
[negation + adjective]
това не е правилната дума Audio
[tova nye ye pravilnata dooma]
don't leave me
[imperative negation]
Не ме оставяй Audio
[Nye mye ostavyay]
no problem
[negation + noun]
няма проблем Audio
[nyama problyem]

Negative Sentences
Bulgarian + Pronunciation
I don't speak French
[negation + present tense]
Аз не говоря френски Audio
[Az nye guovorya fryenski]
she didn't visit Germany
[negation + past tense]
тя не посети Германия Audio
[tya nye posyeti Guyermaniya]
he cannot see us
[negative modal verb]
той не може да ни види Audio
[toy nye moʐye da ni vidi]
can't she play chess?
[interrogative negation]
Тя не може ли да играе шах? Audio
[Tya nye moʐye li da iguraye shakh?]
we will not come late
[negation + future tense]
ние няма да закъснеем Audio
[niye nyama da zakʲsnyeyem]

Questions in Bulgarian

Now let's learn how to ask questions (interrogative). Such as: what, why, can you ...? Here are some common examples:

English
Bulgarian
Pronunciation
how?
как?
[kak?] Audio
what?
какво?
[kakvo?] Audio
who?
кой?
[koy?] Audio
why?
защо?
[zashto?] Audio
where?
къде?
[kʲdye?] Audio

More of the interrogative form, now in a sentence:

Questions + Rules
Bulgarian + Pronunciation
where do you live?
[interrogative + verb]
Къде живееш? Audio
[Kʲdye ʐivyeyesh?]
does she speak Chinese?
[interrogative verb]
тя говори ли китайски? Audio
[tya guovori li kitayski?]
how much is this?
[interrogative preposition]
колко е това? Audio
[kolko ye tova?]
can I help you?
[interrogative modal verb]
мога да ви помогна? Audio
[mogua da vi pomoguna?]
what is your name?
[interrogative preposition]
как ти е името? Audio
[kak ti ye imyeto?]

Adverbs in Bulgarian

It's time to learn the adverbs in Bulgarian. But what is an adverb? In general, adverbs modify verbs and adjectives. For example: You speak fast. The adverb is [fast] because it describes the verb and answers the question how do you speak?. Here is a list of the most common ones:

Adverbs
Bulgarian
Pronunciation
now
сега
[syegua] Audio
yesterday
вчера
[vchyera] Audio
today
днес
[dnyes] Audio
tonight
тази вечер
[tazi vyechyer] Audio
tomorrow
утре
[ootrye] Audio
soon
скоро
[skoro] Audio
quickly
бързо
[bʲrzo] Audio
slowly
бавно
[bavno] Audio
together
заедно
[zayedno] Audio
very
много
[mnoguo] Audio
almost
почти
[pochti] Audio
always
винаги
[vinagui] Audio
usually
обикновено
[obiknovyeno] Audio
sometimes
понякога
[ponyakogua] Audio
rarely
рядко
[ryadko] Audio
never
никога
[nikogua] Audio

The following examples use the adverbs in different ways and places to demonstrate how it behaves in a sentence.

Adverbs + Rules
Bulgarian + Pronunciation
do you understand me now?
[pronoun + adverb]
Разбираш ли ме сега? Audio
[Razbirash li mye syegua?]
I need help immediately
[noun + adverb]
Имам нужда от помощ незабавно Audio
[Imam nooʐda ot pomosht nyezabavno]
she is very intelligent
[adverb + adjective]
тя е много интелигентна Audio
[tya ye mnoguo intyeliguyentna]
I will always love you
[verb + adverb]
Аз винаги ще те обичам Audio
[Az vinagui shtye tye obicham]
can we learn German together?
[adverb in a question]
можем да научим немски заедно? Audio
[moʐyem da naoochim nyemski zayedno?]

Pronouns in Bulgarian

We're almost done! This time we will learn the pronouns in Bulgarian. In general, a pronoun can be used instead of a noun. For example instead of saying my teacher speaks 3 languages, you can use the pronoun he, and say he speaks 3 languages. Here is a list of the most common ones:

Personal Pronouns
Bulgarian
Pronunciation
I
Аз
[Az] Audio
you
ти
[ti] Audio
he
той
[toy] Audio
she
тя
[tya] Audio
we
ние
[niye] Audio
they
те
[tye] Audio

Object Pronouns
Bulgarian
Pronunciation
me
мен
[myen] Audio
you
теб
[tyeb] Audio
him
него
[nyeguo] Audio
her
нея
[nyeya] Audio
us
нас
[nas] Audio
them
тях
[tyakh] Audio

Possessive Pronouns
Bulgarian
Pronunciation
my
мой
[moy] Audio
your
твой
[tvoy] Audio
his
негов
[nyeguov] Audio
her
нейн
[nyeyn] Audio
our
наш
[nash] Audio
their
техен
[tyekhyen] Audio

I think it's better to put the above example in a sentence to better assist you. The following examples use pronouns in different ways and places to demonstrate how they behave in a sentence. We will start with the personal pronouns.

Personal Pronouns
Bulgarian + Pronunciation
I am your friend
[1st pronoun + verb]
Аз съм твой приятел Audio
[Az sʲm tvoy priyatyel]
you speak very fast
[2nd pronoun + adverb]
вие говорите много бързо Audio
[viye guovoritye mnoguo bʲrzo]
he has three dogs
[3rd pronoun + verb]
той има три кучета Audio
[toy ima tri koochyeta]
she can speak German
[3rd pronoun + verb]
тя може да се говори немски Audio
[tya moʐye da sye guovori nyemski]
we will not come late
[1st plural pronoun]
ние няма да закъснеем Audio
[niye nyama da zakʲsnyeyem]
they bought milk and bread
[3rd plural pronoun]
те купиха мляко и хляб Audio
[tye koopikha mlyako i khlyab]

The object pronoun is used as a target by a verb, and usually come after that verb. For example: I gave him my book. The object pronoun here is him. Here are more examples:

Object Pronouns
Bulgarian + Pronunciation
can you tell me your name?
[1st object pronoun]
може ли да ми кажете вашето име? Audio
[moʐye li da mi kaʐyetye vashyeto imye?]
I will give you money
[2nd object pronoun]
Аз ще ти дам пари Audio
[Az shtye ti dam pari]
she wrote him a letter
[3rd object pronoun]
тя му написа писмо Audio
[tya moo napisa pismo]
they visited her yesterday
[3rd object pronoun]
те я посетиха вчера Audio
[tye ya posyetikha vchyera]
can she help us?
[1st pl. object pronoun]
може ли тя да ни помогне? Audio
[moʐye li tya da ni pomogunye?]
he gave them food
[3rd pl. object pronoun]
Той им даде храна Audio
[Toy im dadye khrana]

Possessive Pronouns
Bulgarian + Pronunciation
my name is Maya
[1st possessive pronoun]
Моето име е Мая Audio
[Moyeto imye ye Maya]
your brother lives here
[2nd possessive pronoun]
брат ти живее тук Audio
[brat ti ʐivyeye took]
her mother cooks for us
[3rd possessive pronoun]
нейната майка ни готви Audio
[nyeynata mayka ni guotvi]
his hobby is reading books
[3rd possessive pronoun]
неговото хоби е четенето на книги Audio
[nyeguovoto khobi ye chyetyenyeto na knigui]
our dream is to visit Paris
[1st pl. possessive pronoun]
нашата мечта е да посетим Париж Audio
[nashata myechta ye da posyetim Pariʐ]
their house is not far
[3rd pl. possessive pronoun]
къщата им не е далеч Audio
[kʲshtata im nye ye dalyech]

One more thing you need to know is the demonstrative pronouns. They're very easy to learn.

Demonstrative Pronouns
Bulgarian
Pronunciation
this is my house
Това е моят дом
[Tova ye moyat dom] Audio
that restaurant is far
онзи ресторант е далеч
[onzi ryestorant ye dalyech] Audio
these apples are delicious
тези ябълки са вкусни
[tyezi yabʲlki sa vkoosni] Audio
those stars are shiny
онези звезди са блестящи/бляскави
[onyezi zvyezdi sa blyestyashti/blyaskavi] Audio

I hope you learned a lot about the Bulgarian grammar in this lesson. If you have any question about this lesson please contact me here. The next lesson is below, have fun!

Bulgarian Phrases   Bulgarian Phrases

Bulgarian Vocabulary   Bulgarian Vocabulary



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Inspirational Quote: First say to yourself what you would be; and then do what you have to do. Epictetus