Assamese Grammar

Welcome to the 8th lesson about Assamese grammar. We will first learn about prepositions, negation, questions, adverbs, and pronouns including: personal, object and possessive pronouns. To hear the pronunciation, just click on the sound icon.

We will start with prepositions. In general, they are used to link words to other words. For example: I speak Assamese and English the preposition is [and] because it connects both words Assamese and English. The following is a list of the most used prepositions in Assamese.

Prepositions
Assamese
Pronunciation
and
আৰু
[Ārau]
above
ওপৰত
[Ōparata]
under
তলত
[Talata]
before
আগেয়ে
[Āgēẏē]
after
পিছত
[Pichata]
in front of
সন্মুখত
[Sanmukhata]
behind
পিছফালে
[Pichaphālē]
far from
দুৰলৈ
[Duralai]
near
ওচৰত
[Ōcarata]
in
ভিতৰত
[Bhitarata]
inside
ভিতৰফালে
[Bhitaraphālē]
outside
বাহিৰফালে
[Bāhiraphālē]
with
সৈতে
[Saitē]
without
অবিহনে
[Abihanē]
about
বিষয়ে
[Biṣaẏē]
between
মাজত
[Mājata]
but
কিন্তু
[Kintu]
for
বাবে
[Bābē]
from
পৰা
[Paraā]
to
লৈ
[Lai]

Preposition Grammar Rules

The following examples use prepositions in different ways and places to demonstrate how they behave in a sentence.

Prepositions + Rules
Assamese + Pronunciation
I eat without a knife
[preposition + noun]
মই ছুৰিৰ ব্যৱহাৰ নকৰাকৈ খাওঁ।
[Ma'i churaira byarahāra nakaraākai khā'ōm̐.]
she lives near the church
[verb + preposition]
তেখেত গীৰ্জাঘৰৰ ওচৰত থাকে।
[Tēkhēta gīrjāgharara ōcarata thākē.]
he is taller than her
[adjective + preposition]
তেখেত তেখেততকৈ ওখ।
[Tēkhēta tēkhētatakai ōkha.]
he came with his small dog
[preposition + pronoun]
তেখেত লগত সৰু কুকুৰটো লৈ আহিছিল।
[Tēkhēta lagata sarau kukuraṭō lai āhichila.]
can you come with me?
[preposition + pronoun]
আপুনি মোৰ সৈতে আহিবনে?
[Āpuni mōra saitē āhibanē?]

Negation in Assamese

Now let's learn how to make a negative sentence (negation). For example: Saying no, I can't, I don't ... The following examples use negation in different ways and places to demonstrate how they behave in a sentence.

Negation + Rules
Assamese + Pronunciation
I understand you
[affirmative form]
মই আপোনাক বুজোঁ।
[Ma'i āpōnāka bujōm̐.]
I don't understand you
[negation + verb]
মই আপোনাক বুজা নাই।
[Ma'i āpōnāka bujā nā'i.]
this is not the correct word
[negation + adjective]
এইটো সঠিক শব্দ নইয়।
[Ē'iṭō saṭhika śabda na'iẏa.]
don't leave me
[imperative negation]
মোক এৰি নাযাব।
[Mōka ērai nāyāba.]
no problem
[negation + noun]
চিন্তা নকৰিব।
[Cintā nakaraiba.]

Negative Sentences
Assamese + Pronunciation
I don't speak French
[negation + present tense]
মই ফৰাছী ভাষা নকওঁ।
[Ma'i pharaāchī bhāṣā naka'ōm̐.]
she didn't visit Germany
[negation + past tense]
তেখেতে জাৰ্মানীলৈ যোৱা নাছিল।
[Tēkhētē jārmānīlai yōraā nāchila.]
he cannot see us
[negative modal verb]
তেখেতে আমাক নেদেখে।
[Tēkhētē āmāka nēdēkhē.]
can't she play chess?
[interrogative negation]
তেখেতে দবা খেলিব নোৱাৰে নেকি?
[Tēkhētē dabā khēliba nōraāraē nēki?]
we will not come late
[negation + future tense]
আমি দেৰিকৈ নাহোঁ।
[Āmi dēraikai nāhōm̐.]

Questions in Assamese

Now let's learn how to ask questions (interrogative). Such as: what, why, can you ...? Here are some common examples:

English
Assamese
Pronunciation
how?
কেনেকৈ?
[Kēnēkai?]
what?
কি?
[Ki?]
who?
কোন?
[Kōna?]
why?
কিয়?
[Kiẏa?]
where?
ক'ত?
[Ka'ta?]

More of the interrogative form, now in a sentence:

Questions + Rules
Assamese + Pronunciation
where do you live?
[interrogative + verb]
আপুনি ক'ত থাকে?
[Āpuni ka'ta thākē?]
does she speak Chinese?
[interrogative verb]
তেখেতে চীনাভাষাত কথা কব পাৰেনে?
[Tēkhētē cīnābhāṣāta kathā kaba pāraēnē?]
how much is this?
[interrogative preposition]
এইটোৰ দাম কিমান?
[Ē'iṭōra dāma kimāna?]
can I help you?
[interrogative modal verb]
মই আপোনাক সহায় কৰিব পাৰোঁনে?
[Ma'i āpōnāka sahāẏa karaiba pāraōm̐nē?]
what is your name?
[interrogative preposition]
আপোনাৰ নাম কি?
[Āpōnāra nāma ki?]

Adverbs in Assamese

It's time to learn the adverbs in Assamese. But what is an adverb? In general, adverbs modify verbs and adjectives. For example: You speak fast. The adverb is [fast] because it describes the verb and answers the question how do you speak?. Here is a list of the most common ones:

Adverbs
Assamese
Pronunciation
now
এতিয়া
[Ētiẏā]
yesterday
কালি
[Kāli]
today
আজি
[Āji]
tonight
আজিৰাতি
[Ājiraāti]
tomorrow
কালিলৈ
[Kālilai]
soon
সোনকালে
[Sōnakālē]
quickly
ততালিকে
[Tatālikē]
slowly
লাহেলাহে
[Lāhēlāhē]
together
একেলগে
[Ēkēlagē]
very
খুব
[Khuba]
almost
প্রায়
[Prāẏa]
always
সদায়
[Sadāẏa]
usually
সাধাৰনতে
[Sādhāranatē]
sometimes
কেতিয়াবা
[Kētiẏābā]
rarely
কেতিয়াবাহে
[Kētiẏābāhē]
never
কেতিয়াও
[Kētiẏā'ō]

The following examples use the adverbs in different ways and places to demonstrate how it behaves in a sentence.

Adverbs + Rules
Assamese + Pronunciation
do you understand me now?
[pronoun + adverb]
আপুনি এতিয়া মোক বুজিব পাৰিছেনে?
[Āpuni ētiẏā mōka bujiba pāraichēnē?]
I need help immediately
[noun + adverb]
মোক ততালিকে সহায়ৰ প্রয়োজন।
[Mōka tatālikē sahāẏara praẏōjana.]
she is very intelligent
[adverb + adjective]
তেখেত বৰ বুদ্ধিমতী।
[Tēkhēta bara bud'dhimatī.]
I will always love you
[verb + adverb]
মই আপোনাক সদায় ভাল পাই থাকিম।
[Ma'i āpōnāka sadāẏa bhāla pā'i thākima.]
can we learn German together?
[adverb in a question]
আমি একেলগে জাৰ্মান শিকিব পাৰোঁনে?
[Āmi ēkēlagē jārmāna śikiba pāraōm̐nē?]

Pronouns in Assamese

We're almost done! This time we will learn the pronouns in Assamese. In general, a pronoun can be used instead of a noun. For example instead of saying my teacher speaks 3 languages, you can use the pronoun he, and say he speaks 3 languages. Here is a list of the most common ones:

Personal Pronouns
Assamese
Pronunciation
I
মই
[Ma'i]
you
আপুনি
[Āpuni]
he
তেখেত
[Tēkhēta]
she
তেখেত
[Tēkhēta]
we
আমি
[Āmi]
they
তেখেতসকল
[Tēkhētasakala]

Object Pronouns
Assamese
Pronunciation
me
মোক
[Mōka]
you
আপোনাক
[Āpōnāka]
him
তেখেতক
[Tēkhētaka]
her
তেখেতক
[Tēkhētaka]
us
আমাক
[Āmāka]
them
তেখেতসকলক
[Tēkhētasakalaka]

Possessive Pronouns
Assamese
Pronunciation
my
মোৰ
[Mōra]
your
আপোনাৰ
[Āpōnāra]
his
তেখেতৰ
[Tēkhētara]
her
তেখেতৰ
[Tēkhētara]
our
আমাৰ
[Āmāra]
their
তেখেতসকলৰ
[Tēkhētasakalara]

I think it's better to put the above example in a sentence to better assist you. The following examples use pronouns in different ways and places to demonstrate how they behave in a sentence. We will start with the personal pronouns.

Personal Pronouns
Assamese + Pronunciation
I am your friend
[1st pronoun + verb]
মই আপোনাৰ বন্ধু
[Ma'i āpōnāra bandhu]
you speak very fast
[2nd pronoun + adverb]
আপুনি বৰ খৰকৈ কথা কয়।
[Āpuni bara kharakai kathā kaẏa.]
he has three dogs
[3rd pronoun + verb]
তেখেতৰ তিনিটা কুকুৰ আছে।
[Tēkhētara tiniṭā kukura āchē.]
she can speak German
[3rd pronoun + verb]
তেখেতে জাৰ্মান ভাষা কব পাৰে।
[Tēkhētē jārmāna bhāṣā kaba pāraē.]
we will not come late
[1st plural pronoun]
আমি দেৰিকৈ নাহোঁ।
[Āmi dēraikai nāhōm̐.]
they bought milk and bread
[3rd plural pronoun]
তেখেতসকলে গাখীৰ আৰু পাওৰুটি কিনিলে।
[Tēkhētasakalē gākhīra ārau pā'ōrauṭi kinilē.]

The object pronoun is used as a target by a verb, and usually come after that verb. For example: I gave him my book. The object pronoun here is him. Here are more examples:

Object Pronouns
Assamese + Pronunciation
can you tell me your name?
[1st object pronoun]
আপোনাৰ নামটো কবনে?
[Āpōnāra nāmaṭō kabanē?]
I will give you money
[2nd object pronoun]
মই আপোনাক টকা দিম।
[Ma'i āpōnāka ṭakā dima.]
she wrote him a letter
[3rd object pronoun]
তেখেতে তেখেতক এখন চিঠি লিখিছিল।
[Tēkhētē tēkhētaka ēkhana ciṭhi likhichila.]
they visited her yesterday
[3rd object pronoun]
তেখেতেসকলে তেখেতক কালি দেখা কৰিছিল।
[Tēkhētēsakalē tēkhētaka kāli dēkhā karaichila.]
can she help us?
[1st pl. object pronoun]
তেখেতে আমাক সহায় কৰিব পাৰেনে?
[Tēkhētē āmāka sahāẏa karaiba pāraēnē?]
he gave them food
[3rd pl. object pronoun]
তেখেতে তেখেতসকলক খাদ্য দিছিল।
[Tēkhētē tēkhētasakalaka khādya dichila.]

Possessive Pronouns
Assamese + Pronunciation
my name is Maya
[1st possessive pronoun]
মোৰ নাম মায়া ।
[Mōra nāma māẏā.]
your brother lives here
[2nd possessive pronoun]
আপোনাৰ ভায়েক ইয়াত থাকে।
[Āpōnāra bhāẏēka iẏāta thākē.]
her mother cooks for us
[3rd possessive pronoun]
তেখেতৰ মাকে আমাৰবাবে ৰন্ধা-বঢ়া কৰে।
[Tēkhētara mākē āmārabābē randhā haiṁ - baṛhā karaē.]
his hobby is reading books
[3rd possessive pronoun]
কিতাপ পঢ়াটো তেখেতৰ হবি।
[Kitāpa paṛhāṭō tēkhētara habi.]
our dream is to visit Paris
[1st pl. possessive pronoun]
পেৰিছ ভ্রমন কৰাটো আমাৰ স্বপ্ন।
[Pēraicha bhramana karaāṭō āmāra sbapna.]
their house is not far
[3rd pl. possessive pronoun]
তেখেতৰ ঘৰটো বেছি দূৰত নহয়।
[Tēkhētara gharaṭō bēchi dūrata nahaẏa.]

One more thing you need to know is the demonstrative pronouns. They're very easy to learn.

Demonstrative Pronouns
Assamese
Pronunciation
this is my house
এইটো মোৰ ঘৰ।
[Ē'iṭō mōra ghara.]
that restaurant is far
সেই ৰেস্তোঁৰাখনলৈ বহুদূৰ।
[Sē'i raēstōm̐raākhanalai bahudūra.]
these apples are delicious
এই আপেলবোৰ সুস্বাদু।
[Ē'i āpēlabōra susbādu.]
those stars are shiny
সেই ঘৰবোৰ জাকতজিলিকা।
[Sē'i gharabōra jākatajilikā.]

I hope you learned a lot about the Assamese grammar in this lesson. If you have any question about this lesson please contact me here. The next lesson is below, have fun!

Assamese Phrases   Assamese Phrases

Assamese Vocabulary   Assamese Vocabulary



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Inspirational Quote: First say to yourself what you would be; and then do what you have to do. Epictetus