Punjabi Grammar

Welcome to the 8th lesson about Punjabi grammar. We will first learn about prepositions, negation, questions, adverbs, and pronouns including: personal, object and possessive pronouns. To hear the pronunciation, just click on the sound icon.

We will start with prepositions. In general, they are used to link words to other words. For example: I speak Punjabi and English the preposition is [and] because it connects both words Punjabi and English. The following is a list of the most used prepositions in Punjabi.

Prepositions
Punjabi
Pronunciation
and
ਅਤੇ
[atē] Audio
above
ਉੱਤੇ
[utē] Audio
under
ਹੇਠ
[hēṭha] Audio
before
ਪਹਲਾਂ
[pahalāṁ] Audio
after
ਬਾਅਦ
[bā'ada] Audio
in front of
ਦੇ ਸਾਹਮਣੇ
[dē sāhamaṇē] Audio
behind
ਪੱਿਛੇ
[paichē] Audio
far from
ਇਸ ਤੋਂ ਪਰੇ
[isa tōṁ parē] Audio
near
ਨੇਡ਼ੇ 
[nēṛē] Audio
in
ਅੰਦਰ
[adara] Audio
inside
ਅੰਦਰ ਪਾਸੇ
[adara pāsē] Audio
outside
ਬਾਹਰ ਪਾਸੇ
[bāhara pāsē] Audio
with
ਨਾਲ
[nāla] Audio
without
ਬਗੈਰ
[bagaira] Audio
about
ਬਾਰੇ 
[bārē] Audio
between
ਦਰਮਆਿਨ
[daramaā̔ina] Audio
but
ਪਰ
[para] Audio
for
ਲਈ
[la'ī] Audio
from
ਵੱਲੋਂ
[valōṁ] Audio
to
ਨੂੰ
[nū] Audio

Preposition Grammar Rules

The following examples use prepositions in different ways and places to demonstrate how they behave in a sentence.

Prepositions + Rules
Punjabi + Pronunciation
I eat without a knife
[preposition + noun]
ਮੈਂ ਛੁਰੀ ਤੋਂ ਬਗ਼ੈਰ ਖਾਂਦਾ ਹਾਂ Audio
[maiṁ churī tōṁ baġaira khāndā hāṁ]
she lives near the church
[verb + preposition]
ਓਹ ਚਰਚ ਦੇ ਨੇੜੇ ਰਹਿੰਦੀ ਹੈ Audio
[ōha caraca dē nēṛē rahidī hai]
he is taller than her
[adjective + preposition]
ਓਹ ਮੁੰਡਾ ਕੁੜੀ ਤੋਂ ਲੰਮਾ ਹੈ Audio
[ōha muḍā kuṛī tōṁ lamā hai]
he came with his small dog
[preposition + pronoun]
ਓਹ ਆਪਣੇ ਛੋਟੇ ਕੁੱਤੇ ਨਾਲ ਆਇਆ Audio
[ōha āpaṇē chōṭē kutē nāla ā'i'ā]
can you come with me?
[preposition + pronoun]
ਕੀ ਤੁਸੀਂ ਮੇਰੇ ਨਾਲ ਆਉਗੇ? Audio
[kī tusīṁ mērē nāla ā'ugē?]

Negation in Punjabi

Now let's learn how to make a negative sentence (negation). For example: Saying no, I can't, I don't ... The following examples use negation in different ways and places to demonstrate how they behave in a sentence.

Negation + Rules
Punjabi + Pronunciation
I understand you
[affirmative form]
ਮੈਂ ਤੁਹਾਨੂੰ ਸਮਝਦਾ ਹਾਂ Audio
[maiṁ tuhānū samajhadā hāṁ]
I don't understand you
[negation + verb]
ਮੈਂ ਤੁਹਾਨੂੰ ਨਹੀਂ ਸਮਝਦਾ Audio
[maiṁ tuhānū nahīṁ samajhadā]
this is not the correct word
[negation + adjective]
ਇਹ ਠੀਕ ਸ਼ਬਦ ਨਹੀਂ ਹੈ Audio
[iha ṭhīka śabada nahīṁ hai]
don't leave me
[imperative negation]
ਮੈਂਨੂੰ ਛੱਡ ਕੇ ਨਾਂ ਜਾਓ Audio
[mainnū chaḍa kē nāṁ jā'ō]
no problem
[negation + noun]
ਕੋਈ ਗੱਲ ਨਹੀਂ Audio
[kō'ī gala nahīṁ]

Negative Sentences
Punjabi + Pronunciation
I don't speak French
[negation + present tense]
ਮੈਂ ਫਰੈਂਚ ਨਹੀਂ ਬੋਲਦਾ Audio
[maiṁ pharain̄ca nahīṁ bōladā]
she didn't visit Germany
[negation + past tense]
ਓਹ ਜਰਮਨੀ ਨਹੀਂ ਗਈ Audio
[ōha jaramanī nahīṁ ga'ī]
he cannot see us
[negative modal verb]
ਓਹ ਸਾਨੂੰ ਵੇਖ ਨਹੀਂ ਸਕਦਾ Audio
[ōha sānū vēkha nahīṁ sakadā]
can't she play chess?
[interrogative negation]
ਕੀ ਓਹ ਸ਼ਤਰੰਜ ਨਹੀਂ ਖੇਡ ਸਕਦੀ Audio
[kī ōha śataraja nahīṁ khēḍa sakadī]
we will not come late
[negation + future tense]
ਅਸੀਂ ਦੇਰ ਨਾਲ ਨਹੀਂ ਆਵਾਂਗੇ Audio
[asīṁ dēra nāla nahīṁ āvāṅgē]

Questions in Punjabi

Now let's learn how to ask questions (interrogative). Such as: what, why, can you ...? Here are some common examples:

English
Punjabi
Pronunciation
how?
ਕਿਵੇਂ?
[kivēṁ?] Audio
what?
ਕੀ?
[kī?] Audio
who?
ਕੌਣ?
[kauṇa?] Audio
why?
ਕਿਓਂ?
[ki'ōṁ?] Audio
where?
ਕਿੱਥੇ
[kithē] Audio

More of the interrogative form, now in a sentence:

Questions + Rules
Punjabi + Pronunciation
where do you live?
[interrogative + verb]
ਤੁਸੀਂ ਕਿੱਥੇ ਰਹਿੰਦੇ ਹੋ? Audio
[tusīṁ kithē rahidē hō?]
does she speak Chinese?
[interrogative verb]
ਕੀ ਓਹ ਚੀਨੀ ਬੋਲ ਸਕਦੀ ਹੈ? Audio
[kī ōha cīnī bōla sakadī hai?]
how much is this?
[interrogative preposition]
ਇਹ ਕਿੰਨਾ ਹੈ? Audio
[iha kinā hai?]
can I help you?
[interrogative modal verb]
ਕੀ ਮੈਂ ਤੁਹਾਡੀ ਮਦਦ ਕਰ ਸਕਦਾ ਹਾਂ? Audio
[kī maiṁ tuhāḍī madada kara sakadā hāṁ?]
what is your name?
[interrogative preposition]
ਤੁਹਾਡਾ ਨਾਮ ਕੀ ਹੈ? Audio
[tuhāḍā nāma kī hai?]

Adverbs in Punjabi

It's time to learn the adverbs in Punjabi. But what is an adverb? In general, adverbs modify verbs and adjectives. For example: You speak fast. The adverb is [fast] because it describes the verb and answers the question how do you speak?. Here is a list of the most common ones:

Adverbs
Punjabi
Pronunciation
now
ਹੁਣ
[huṇa] Audio
yesterday
ਕੱਲ੍ਹ
[kal'ha] Audio
today
ਅੱਜ
[aja] Audio
tonight
ਅੱਜ ਰਾਤ
[aja rāta] Audio
tomorrow
ਕੱਲ੍ਹ
[kal'ha] Audio
soon
ਜਲਦੀ ਹੀ
[jaladī hī] Audio
quickly
ਛੇਤੀ
[chētī] Audio
slowly
ਹੌਲੀ-ਹੌਲੀ
[haulī - haulī] Audio
together
ਇਕੱਠੇ
[ikaṭhē] Audio
very
ਬਹੁਤ
[bahuta] Audio
almost
ਕਰੀਬ-ਕਰੀਬ
[karība - karība] Audio
always
ਹਮੇਸ਼ਾ
[hamēśā] Audio
usually
ਆਮ ਤੌਰ ਤੇ
[āma taura tē] Audio
sometimes
ਕਦੇ-ਕਦੇ
[kadē - kadē] Audio
rarely
ਵਰਿਲੇ ਹੀ
[varilē hī] Audio
never
ਕਦੇ ਵੀ ਨਹੀਂ
[kadē vī nahīṁ] Audio

The following examples use the adverbs in different ways and places to demonstrate how it behaves in a sentence.

Adverbs + Rules
Punjabi + Pronunciation
do you understand me now?
[pronoun + adverb]
ਕੀ ਤੁਸੀਂ ਹੁਣ ਮੈਨੂੰ ਸਮਝਦੇ ਹੋ? Audio
[kī tusīṁ huṇa mainū samajhadē hō?]
I need help immediately
[noun + adverb]
ਮੈਨੂੰ ਹੁਣੇ ਮਦਦ ਚਾਹੀਦੀ ਹੈ Audio
[mainū huṇē madada cāhīdī hai]
she is very intelligent
[adverb + adjective]
ਓਹ ਬਹੁਤ ਸਿਆਣੀ ਹੈ Audio
[ōha bahuta si'āṇī hai]
I will always love you
[verb + adverb]
ਮੈਂ ਹਮੇਸ਼ਾਂ ਤੈਨੂੰ ਪਿਆਰ ਕਰਦਾ ਰਹਾਂਗਾ Audio
[maiṁ hamēśāṁ tainū pi'āra karadā rahāṅgā]
can we learn German together?
[adverb in a question]
ਕੀ ਅਸੀਂ ਇਕੱਠੇ ਜਰਮਨ ਸਿੱਖ ਸਕਦੇ ਹਾਂ? Audio
[kī asīṁ ikaṭhē jaramana sikha sakadē hāṁ?]

Pronouns in Punjabi

We're almost done! This time we will learn the pronouns in Punjabi. In general, a pronoun can be used instead of a noun. For example instead of saying my teacher speaks 3 languages, you can use the pronoun he, and say he speaks 3 languages. Here is a list of the most common ones:

Personal Pronouns
Punjabi
Pronunciation
I
ਮੈਂ
[maiṁ] Audio
you
ਤੁੰ, ਤੁਸੀਂ
[tu, tusīṁ] Audio
he
ਉਹ ਉਸ (ਮਰਦ ਲਈ)
[uha usa (marada la'ī)] Audio
she
ਉਹ ਉਸ (ਔਰਤ ਲਈ)
[uha usa (aurata la'ī)] Audio
we
ਅਸੀਂ
[asīṁ] Audio
they
ਉਹ, ਉਹਨਾਂ
[uha, uhanāṁ] Audio

Object Pronouns
Punjabi
Pronunciation
me
ਮੈਂ
[maiṁ] Audio
you
ਤੁੰ, ਤੁਸੀਂ
[tu, tusīṁ] Audio
him
ਉਸ, ਉਸਨੂੰ (ਮਰਦ ਲਈ)
[usa, usanū (marada la'ī)] Audio
her
ਉਸ, ਉਸਨੂੰ (ਔਰਤ ਲਈ)
[usa, usanū (aurata la'ī)] Audio
us
ਅਸੀਂ
[asīṁ] Audio
them
ਉਹਨਾਂ
[uhanāṁ] Audio

Possessive Pronouns
Punjabi
Pronunciation
my
ਮੇਰਾ
[mērā] Audio
your
ਤੁਹਾਡਾ
[tuhāḍā] Audio
his
ਉਸਦਾ (ਮਰਦ ਲਈ)
[usadā (marada la'ī)] Audio
her
ਉਸਦਾ (ਔਰਤ ਲਈ)
[usadā (aurata la'ī)] Audio
our
ਸਾਡਾ
[sāḍā] Audio
their
ਉਹਨਾਂ 
[uhanāṁ] Audio

I think it's better to put the above example in a sentence to better assist you. The following examples use pronouns in different ways and places to demonstrate how they behave in a sentence. We will start with the personal pronouns.

Personal Pronouns
Punjabi + Pronunciation
I am your friend
[1st pronoun + verb]
ਮੈਂ ਤੁਹਾਡਾ ਮਿੱਤਰ ਹਾਂ Audio
[maiṁ tuhāḍā mitara hāṁ]
you speak very fast
[2nd pronoun + adverb]
ਤੁਸੀਂ ਬਹੁਤ ਤੇਜ਼ ਬੋਲਦੇ ਹੋ Audio
[tusīṁ bahuta tēza bōladē hō]
he has three dogs
[3rd pronoun + verb]
ਓਸ ਕੋਲ ਤਿੰਨ ਕੁੱਤੇ ਹਨ Audio
[ōsa kōla tina kutē hana]
she can speak German
[3rd pronoun + verb]
ਓਹ ਜਰਮਨ ਬੋਲ ਸਕਦੀ ਹੈ Audio
[ōha jaramana bōla sakadī hai]
we will not come late
[1st plural pronoun]
ਅਸੀਂ ਦੇਰ ਨਾਲ ਨਹੀਂ ਆਵਾਂਗੇ Audio
[asīṁ dēra nāla nahīṁ āvāṅgē]
they bought milk and bread
[3rd plural pronoun]
ਓਹ ਦੁੱਧ ਅਤੇ ਡਬਲਰੋਟੀ ਖਰੀਦ ਕੇ ਲਿਆਏ Audio
[ōha dudha atē ḍabalarōṭī kharīda kē li'ā'ē]

The object pronoun is used as a target by a verb, and usually come after that verb. For example: I gave him my book. The object pronoun here is him. Here are more examples:

Object Pronouns
Punjabi + Pronunciation
can you tell me your name?
[1st object pronoun]
ਕੀ ਤੁਸੀਂ ਆਪਣਾ ਨਾਮ ਦੱਸੋਗੇ? Audio
[kī tusīṁ āpaṇā nāma dasōgē?]
I will give you money
[2nd object pronoun]
ਮੈਂ ਤੁਹਾਨੂੰ ਪੈਸੇ ਦਿਆਂਗਾ Audio
[maiṁ tuhānū paisē di'āṅgā]
she wrote him a letter
[3rd object pronoun]
ਓਸ ਨੇ ਓਸ ਨੂੰ ਚਿੱਠੀ ਲਿਖੀ Audio
[ōsa nē ōsa nū ciṭhī likhī]
they visited her yesterday
[3rd object pronoun]
ਓਹ ਓਸ ਨੂੰ ਮਿਲਣ ਗਏ Audio
[ōha ōsa nū milaṇa ga'ē]
can she help us?
[1st pl. object pronoun]
ਕੀ ਓਹ ਸਾਡੀ ਮਦਦ ਕਰੇਗੀ? Audio
[kī ōha sāḍī madada karēgī?]
he gave them food
[3rd pl. object pronoun]
ਓਸ ਨੇ ਓਹਨਾਂ ਨੂੰ ਖਾਣਾ ਦਿੱਤਾ Audio
[ōsa nē ōhanāṁ nū khāṇā ditā]

Possessive Pronouns
Punjabi + Pronunciation
my name is Maya
[1st possessive pronoun]
ਮੇਰਾ ਨਾਮ ਮਾਇਆ ਹੈ Audio
[mērā nāma mā'i'ā hai]
your brother lives here
[2nd possessive pronoun]
ਤੁਹਾਡਾ ਭਰਾ ਇੱਥੇ ਰਹਿੰਦਾ ਹੈ Audio
[tuhāḍā bharā ithē rahidā hai]
her mother cooks for us
[3rd possessive pronoun]
ਓਸ ਦੀ ਮਾਂ ਸਾਡੇ ਲਈ ਖਾਣਾ ਬਣਾਉਂਦੀ ਹੈ Audio
[ōsa dī māṁ sāḍē la'ī khāṇā baṇā'undī hai]
his hobby is reading books
[3rd possessive pronoun]
ਓਸ ਨੂੰ ਕਿਤਾਬਾਂ ਪੜ੍ਹਣ ਦਾ ਸ਼ੌਂਕ ਹੈ Audio
[ōsa nū kitābāṁ paṛhaṇa dā śauṅka hai]
our dream is to visit Paris
[1st pl. possessive pronoun]
ਪੈਰਿਸ ਜਾਣਾ ਸਾਡਾ ਸੁਪਨਾ ਹੈ Audio
[pairisa jāṇā sāḍā supanā hai]
their house is not far
[3rd pl. possessive pronoun]
ਓਹਨਾਂ ਦਾ ਘਰ ਦੂਰ ਨਹੀਂ ਹੈ Audio
[ōhanāṁ dā ghara dūra nahīṁ hai]

One more thing you need to know is the demonstrative pronouns. They're very easy to learn.

Demonstrative Pronouns
Punjabi
Pronunciation
this is my house
ਇਹ ਮੇਰਾ ਘਰ ਹੈ
[iha mērā ghara hai] Audio
that restaurant is far
ਓਹ ਰੇਸਤਰਾਂ ਦੂਰ ਹੈ
[ōha rēsatarāṁ dūra hai] Audio
these apples are delicious
ਇਹ ਸੇਬ ਸੁਆਦੀ ਹਨ
[iha sēba su'ādī hana] Audio
those stars are shiny
ਓਹ ਸਿਤਾਰੇ ਚਮਕੀਲੇ ਹਨ
[ōha sitārē camakīlē hana] Audio

I hope you learned a lot about the Punjabi grammar in this lesson. If you have any question about this lesson please contact me here. The next lesson is below, have fun!

Punjabi Phrases   Punjabi Phrases

Punjabi Vocabulary   Punjabi Vocabulary



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Inspirational Quote: First say to yourself what you would be; and then do what you have to do. Epictetus