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Uzbek Grammar

Welcome to the 8th lesson about Uzbek grammar. We will first learn about prepositions, negation, questions, adverbs, and pronouns including: personal, object and possessive pronouns.

We will start with prepositions. In general, they are used to link words to other words. For example: I speak Uzbek and English the preposition is [and] because it connects both words Uzbek and English. The following is a list of the most used prepositions in Uzbek.

Prepositions - Uzbek
and va
above tepada
under tagida, pastida
before oldin
after keyin
in front of … qarshisida
behind orqada
far from dan uzoq
near yonida
in ichida
inside ichida
outside tashqarida
with bilan
without …siz
about haqida
between o'rtasida
but lekin
for uchun
from …dan
to ….ga

Preposition Grammar Rules

The following examples use prepositions in different ways and places to demonstrate how they behave in a sentence.

Prepositions + Rules - Uzbek
I eat without a knife
[preposition + noun] men pichoqsiz ovqatlanaman
she lives near the church
[verb + preposition] u cherkov yonida yashaydi
he is taller than her
[adjective + preposition] u unga qaraganda baland
he came with his small dog
[preposition + pronoun] u kuchukchasi bilan keldi
can you come with me?
[preposition + pronoun] sen men bilan birga kela olasanmi?

Negation in Uzbek

Now let's learn how to make a negative sentence (negation). For example: Saying no, I can't, I don't ... The following examples use negation in different ways and places to demonstrate how they behave in a sentence.

Negation + Rules - Uzbek
I understand you
[affirmative form] men sizni tushunaman
I don't understand you
[negation + verb] men sizni tushunmayapman
this is not the correct word
[negation + adjective] bu to'g'ri so'z emas
don't leave me
[imperative negation] meni tashlab ketma
no problem
[negation + noun] hech qisi yo'q

Negative Sentences - Uzbek
I don't speak French
[negation + present tense] men fransuzcha gapirmayman
she didn't visit Germany
[negation + past tense] u olmoniyaga sayohat kilmagan
he cannot see us
[negative modal verb] u bizni ko'ra olmayapti
can't she play chess?
[interrogative negation] u shaxmat o'ynashni biladimi?
we will not come late
[negation + future tense] biz kech kelmaymiz

Questions in Uzbek

Now let's learn how to ask questions (interrogative). Such as: what, why, can you ...? Here are some common examples:

English - Uzbek
how? qanday?
what? nima?
who? kim?
why? nima uchun?
where? qaerda?

More of the interrogative form, now in a sentence:

Questions + Rules - Uzbek
where do you live?
[interrogative + verb] siz qaerda yashaysiz?
does she speak Chinese?
[interrogative verb] siz hitoycha gapirasizmi?
how much is this?
[interrogative preposition] bu qancha turadi?
can I help you?
[interrogative modal verb] sizga yordamim kerakmi?
what is your name?
[interrogative preposition] ismingiz nima?

Adverbs in Uzbek

It's time to learn the adverbs in Uzbek. But what is an adverb? In general, adverbs modify verbs and adjectives. For example: You speak fast. The adverb is [fast] because it describes the verb and answers the question how do you speak?. Here is a list of the most common ones:

Adverbs - Uzbek
now hozir
yesterday kecha
today bugun
tonight bugun tunda
tomorrow ertaga
soon yaqin orada
quickly tez
slowly sekin
together hamma
very juda
almost dearli
always har doyim
usually odatdan
sometimes vaqt-ma-vaqt, bazan
rarely kamdan-kam
never hech qachon

The following examples use the adverbs in different ways and places to demonstrate how it behaves in a sentence.

Adverbs + Rules - Uzbek
do you understand me now?
[pronoun + adverb] siz meni endi tushunayapsizmi?
I need help immediately
[noun + adverb] menga hoziroq yordam kerak
she is very intelligent
[adverb + adjective] u juda aqilli
I will always love you
[verb + adverb] men seni har doim sevaman
can we learn German together?
[adverb in a question] biz birga nemis tilini o'rgansak boladimi?

Pronouns in Uzbek

We're almost done! This time we will learn the pronouns in Uzbek. In general, a pronoun can be used instead of a noun. For example instead of saying my teacher speaks 3 languages, you can use the pronoun he, and say he speaks 3 languages. Here is a list of the most common ones:

Personal Pronouns - Uzbek
I men
you sen
he u
she u
we biz
they ular

Object Pronouns - Uzbek
me menga
you senga
him unga
her unga
us bizga
them ularga

Possessive Pronouns - Uzbek
my mening
your sening
his uning
her uning
our bizning
their ularning

I think it's better to put the above example in a sentence to better assist you. The following examples use pronouns in different ways and places to demonstrate how they behave in a sentence. We will start with the personal pronouns.

Personal Pronouns - Uzbek
I am your friend
[1st pronoun + verb] men sizni do'stingizman
you speak very fast
[2nd pronoun + adverb] siz juda tez gapirayapsiz
he has three dogs
[3rd pronoun + verb] unda uchta itlari bor
she can speak German
[3rd pronoun + verb] u nemis tilida gapira oladi
we will not come late
[1st plural pronoun] biz kech kelmaymiz
they bought milk and bread
[3rd plural pronoun] ular non va saryog' sotib oldilar

The object pronoun is used as a target by a verb, and usually come after that verb. For example: I gave him my book. The object pronoun here is him. Here are more examples:

Object Pronouns - Uzbek
can you tell me your name?
[1st object pronoun] siz menga ismingizni ayta olasizmi?
I will give you money
[2nd object pronoun] men sizga pul beraman
she wrote him a letter
[3rd object pronoun] u unga hat yozdi
they visited her yesterday
[3rd object pronoun] ular uni kecha ko'rib keldilar
can she help us?
[1st pl. object pronoun] u bizga yordam bera oladimi?
he gave them food
[3rd pl. object pronoun] u ularga ovqat berdi

Possessive Pronouns - Uzbek
my name is Maya
[1st possessive pronoun] mening ismim maya
your brother lives here
[2nd possessive pronoun] sening akang/ukang shu erda yashaydi
her mother cooks for us
[3rd possessive pronoun] uning onasi biz uchun taom tayyorlaydi
his hobby is reading books
[3rd possessive pronoun] u bo'sh vaqtida kitob o'qiydi
our dream is to visit Paris
[1st pl. possessive pronoun] bizning orzuimiz parijga sayoxat qilishdir
their house is not far
[3rd pl. possessive pronoun] ularning o'yi uncha uzoqda emas

One more thing you need to know is the demonstrative pronouns. They're very easy to learn.

Demonstrative Pronouns - Uzbek
this is my house bu mening o'yim
that restaurant is far u yoqdagi restoran uzoqda joylashgan
these apples are delicious bu olmalar juda mazali
those stars are shiny bu yulduzlar yaltiroq

I hope you learned a lot about the Uzbek grammar in this lesson. Please check out our main menu here for more lessons: homepage. The next lesson is below, have fun!

Inspirational Quote: First say to yourself what you would be; and then do what you have to do. Epictetus

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