Russian Grammar

Welcome to the 8th lesson about Russian grammar. We will first learn about prepositions, negation, questions, adverbs, and pronouns including: personal, object and possessive pronouns. To hear the pronunciation, just click on the sound icon.

We will start with prepositions. In general, they are used to link words to other words. For example: I speak Russian and English the preposition is [and] because it connects both words Russian and English. The following is a list of the most used prepositions in Russian.

Prepositions
Russian
Pronunciation
and
и
[i] Audio
above
выше
[vishye] Audio
under
под
[pod] Audio
before
до
[do] Audio
after
после
[poslye] Audio
in front of
перед
[pyeryed] Audio
behind
за
[za] Audio
far from
далеко от
[dalyeko ot] Audio
near
около
[okolo] Audio
in
в
[v] Audio
inside
внутри
[vnootri] Audio
outside
за пределами
[za pryedyelami] Audio
with
с
[s] Audio
without
без
[byez] Audio
about
о
[o] Audio
between
между
[myeʐdoo] Audio
but
но
[no] Audio
for
для
[dlya] Audio
from
от
[ot] Audio
to
к
[k] Audio

Preposition Grammar Rules

The following examples use prepositions in different ways and places to demonstrate how they behave in a sentence.

Prepositions + Rules
Russian + Pronunciation
I eat without a knife
[preposition + noun]
я ем без ножа Audio
[ya yem byez noʐa]
she lives near the church
[verb + preposition]
она живет рядом с церковью Audio
[ona ʐivyet ryadom s tzyerkovʲyo]
he is taller than her
[adjective + preposition]
он выше чем она Audio
[on vishye chyem ona]
he came with his small dog
[preposition + pronoun]
он пришел со своей маленькой собачкой Audio
[on prishyel so svoyey malyenʲkoy sobachkoy]
can you come with me?
[preposition + pronoun]
вы можете пойти со мной? Audio
[vi moʐyetye poyti so mnoy?]

Negation in Russian

Now let's learn how to make a negative sentence (negation). For example: Saying no, I can't, I don't ... The following examples use negation in different ways and places to demonstrate how they behave in a sentence.

Negation + Rules
Russian + Pronunciation
I understand you
[affirmative form]
я вас понимаю Audio
[ya vas ponimayo]
I don't understand you
[negation + verb]
я вас не понимаю Audio
[ya vas nye ponimayo]
this is not the correct word
[negation + adjective]
это неправильное слово Audio
[eto nyepravilʲnoye slovo]
don't leave me
[imperative negation]
не оставляй меня Audio
[nye ostavlyay myenya]
no problem
[negation + noun]
нет проблем Audio
[nyet problyem]

Negative Sentences
Russian + Pronunciation
I don't speak French
[negation + present tense]
я не говорю по-французски Audio
[ya nye govoryo po-frantzoozski]
she didn't visit Germany
[negation + past tense]
она не посещала германию Audio
[ona nye posyeshtala gyermaniyo]
he cannot see us
[negative modal verb]
он не может видеть нас Audio
[on nye moʐyet vidyetʲ nas]
can't she play chess?
[interrogative negation]
она не может играть в шахматы? Audio
[ona nye moʐyet igratʲ v shakhmati?]
we will not come late
[negation + future tense]
мы придем непоздно Audio
[mi pridyet nyepozdno]

Questions in Russian

Now let's learn how to ask questions (interrogative). Such as: what, why, can you ...? Here are some common examples:

English
Russian
Pronunciation
how?
каким образом?
[kakim obrazom?] Audio
what?
что?
[chto?] Audio
who?
кто?
[kto?] Audio
why?
почему?
[pochyemoo?] Audio
where?
где?
[gdye?] Audio

More of the interrogative form, now in a sentence:

Questions + Rules
Russian + Pronunciation
where do you live?
[interrogative + verb]
где ты живешь? Audio
[gdye ti ʐivyeshʲ?]
does she speak Chinese?
[interrogative verb]
она говорит по-китайски? Audio
[ona govorit po-kitayski?]
how much is this?
[interrogative preposition]
сколько это стоит? Audio
[skolʲko eto stoit?]
can I help you?
[interrogative modal verb]
я могу вам помочь? Audio
[ya mogoo vam pomochʲ?]
what is your name?
[interrogative preposition]
как тебя зовут? Audio
[kak tyebya zovoot?]

Adverbs in Russian

It's time to learn the adverbs in Russian. But what is an adverb? In general, adverbs modify verbs and adjectives. For example: You speak fast. The adverb is [fast] because it describes the verb and answers the question how do you speak?. Here is a list of the most common ones:

Adverbs
Russian
Pronunciation
now
в настоящее время
[v nastoyashtyeye vryemya] Audio
yesterday
вчера
[vchyera] Audio
today
сегодня
[syegodnya] Audio
tonight
сегодня вечером
[syegodnya vyechyerom] Audio
tomorrow
завтра
[zavtra] Audio
soon
скоро
[skoro] Audio
quickly
быстро
[bistro] Audio
slowly
медленно
[myedlyenno] Audio
together
вместе
[vmyestye] Audio
very
очень
[ochyenʲ] Audio
almost
почти
[pochti] Audio
always
всегда
[vsyegda] Audio
usually
обычно
[obichno] Audio
sometimes
иногда
[inogda] Audio
rarely
редко
[ryedko] Audio
never
никогда
[nikogda] Audio

The following examples use the adverbs in different ways and places to demonstrate how it behaves in a sentence.

Adverbs + Rules
Russian + Pronunciation
do you understand me now?
[pronoun + adverb]
вы понимаете меня сейчас? Audio
[vi ponimayetye myenya syeychas?]
I need help immediately
[noun + adverb]
мне нужна помощь немедленно Audio
[mnye nooʐna pomoshtʲ nyemyedlyenno]
she is very intelligent
[adverb + adjective]
она очень умная Audio
[ona ochyenʲ oomnaya]
I will always love you
[verb + adverb]
я всегда буду любить тебя Audio
[ya vsyegda boodoo lyobitʲ tyebya]
can we learn German together?
[adverb in a question]
можем мы учить неиецкий язык вместе? Audio
[moʐyem mi oochitʲ nyeiyetzkiy yazik vmyestye?]

Pronouns in Russian

We're almost done! This time we will learn the pronouns in Russian. In general, a pronoun can be used instead of a noun. For example instead of saying my teacher speaks 3 languages, you can use the pronoun he, and say he speaks 3 languages. Here is a list of the most common ones:

Personal Pronouns
Russian
Pronunciation
I
я
[ya] Audio
you
вы
[vi] Audio
he
он
[on] Audio
she
она
[ona] Audio
we
мы
[mi] Audio
they
они
[oni] Audio

Object Pronouns
Russian
Pronunciation
me
мне
[mnye] Audio
you
вы
[vi] Audio
him
ему его
[yemoo yego] Audio
her
ей ее
[yey yeye ] Audio
us
нам
[nam ] Audio
them
им
[im] Audio

Possessive Pronouns
Russian
Pronunciation
my
мой
[moy] Audio
your
ваш
[vash] Audio
his
его
[yego] Audio
her
ее
[yeye] Audio
our
наш
[nash] Audio
their
их
[ikh] Audio

I think it's better to put the above example in a sentence to better assist you. The following examples use pronouns in different ways and places to demonstrate how they behave in a sentence. We will start with the personal pronouns.

Personal Pronouns
Russian + Pronunciation
I am your friend
[1st pronoun + verb]
я твой друг Audio
[ya tvoy droog]
you speak very fast
[2nd pronoun + adverb]
вы говорите очень быстро Audio
[vi govoritye ochyenʲ bistro]
he has three dogs
[3rd pronoun + verb]
у него есть три собаки Audio
[oo nyego yestʲ tri sobaki]
she can speak German
[3rd pronoun + verb]
она говорит по-немецки Audio
[ona govorit po nyemyetzki]
we will not come late
[1st plural pronoun]
мы придет не поздно Audio
[mi pridyet nye pozdno]
they bought milk and bread
[3rd plural pronoun]
они купили молока и хлеба Audio
[oni koopili moloka i khlyeba]

The object pronoun is used as a target by a verb, and usually come after that verb. For example: I gave him my book. The object pronoun here is him. Here are more examples:

Object Pronouns
Russian + Pronunciation
can you tell me your name?
[1st object pronoun]
вы можете сказать мне свое имя? Audio
[vi moʐyetye skazatʲ mnye svoye imya?]
I will give you money
[2nd object pronoun]
я дам вам денег Audio
[ya dam vam dyenyeg]
she wrote him a letter
[3rd object pronoun]
она написала ему письмо Audio
[ona napisala yemoo pisʲmo]
they visited her yesterday
[3rd object pronoun]
они посетили ее вчера Audio
[oni posyetili yeye vchyera]
can she help us?
[1st pl. object pronoun]
она может нам помочь? Audio
[ona moʐyet nam pomochʲ?]
he gave them food
[3rd pl. object pronoun]
он дал им еды Audio
[on dal im yedi]

Possessive Pronouns
Russian + Pronunciation
my name is Maya
[1st possessive pronoun]
меня зовут Майя Audio
[myenya zovoot mayya]
your brother lives here
[2nd possessive pronoun]
ваш брат живет здесь Audio
[vash brat ʐivyet zdyesʲ]
her mother cooks for us
[3rd possessive pronoun]
ее мать готовит для нас Audio
[yeye matʲ gotovit dlya nas]
his hobby is reading books
[3rd possessive pronoun]
он увлекается чтением книг Audio
[on oovlyekayetsya chtyeniyem knig]
our dream is to visit Paris
[1st pl. possessive pronoun]
наша мечта побывать в Париже Audio
[nasha myechta pobivatʲ v pariʐye]
their house is not far
[3rd pl. possessive pronoun]
их дом находится недалеко Audio
[ikh dom nakhoditsya nyedalyeko]

One more thing you need to know is the demonstrative pronouns. They're very easy to learn.

Demonstrative Pronouns
Russian
Pronunciation
this is my house
это мой дом
[eto moy dom] Audio
that restaurant is far
это ресторан далеко
[eto ryestoran dalyeko] Audio
these apples are delicious
эти яблоки очень вкусные
[eti yabloki ochyenʲ vkoosniye] Audio
those stars are shiny
эти звезды блестящие
[eti zvyezdi blyestyashtiye] Audio

I hope you learned a lot about the Russian grammar in this lesson. If you have any question about this lesson please contact me here. The next lesson is below, have fun!

Russian Phrases   Russian Phrases

Russian Vocabulary   Russian Vocabulary



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Inspirational Quote: First say to yourself what you would be; and then do what you have to do. Epictetus