Oriya Grammar

Welcome to the 8th lesson about Oriya grammar. We will first learn about prepositions, negation, questions, adverbs, and pronouns including: personal, object and possessive pronouns. To hear the pronunciation, just click on the sound icon.

We will start with prepositions. In general, they are used to link words to other words. For example: I speak Oriya and English the preposition is [and] because it connects both words Oriya and English. The following is a list of the most used prepositions in Oriya.

Prepositions
Oriya
Pronunciation
and
ଆଉ
[ā'u]
above
ଉପରେ
[uparē]
under
ତଳେ
[taḷē]
before
ପୂର୍ବରୁ
[pūrbaru]
after
ପରେ
[parē]
in front of
ସାମନାରେ
[sāmanārē]
behind
ପଛରେ
[pacharē]
far from
ବହୁ ଦୂରରେ
[bahu dūrarē]
near
ପାଖରେ
[pākharē]
in
ଭିତର
[bhitara]
inside
ଭିତରେ
[bhitarē]
outside
ବାହାରେ
[bāhārē]
with
ସହିତ
[sahita]
without
ବିନା
[binā]
about
ବିଷୟରେ
[biṣaẏarē]
between
ମଧ୍ୟରେ
[madhẏarē]
but
କିନ୍ତୁ
[kintu]
for
ପାଇଁ
[pā'im̐]
from
ଠାରୁ
[ṭhāru]
to
କୁ
[ku]

Preposition Grammar Rules

The following examples use prepositions in different ways and places to demonstrate how they behave in a sentence.

Prepositions + Rules
Oriya + Pronunciation
I eat without a knife
[preposition + noun]
ମୁଁ ଛୁରୀ ବିନା ଖାଦ୍ୟ ଖାଏ
[mum̐ churī binā khādẏa khā'ē]
she lives near the church
[verb + preposition]
ସେ ଚର୍ଚ୍ଚ ନିକଟରେ ରହୁଛନ୍ତି
[sē carcca nikaṭarē rahuchanti]
he is taller than her
[adjective + preposition]
ସେ ପୁଅ ସେହି ଝିଅଠାରୁ ଡେଙ୍ଗା ଅଟେ
[sē pu'a sēhi jhi'aṭhāru ḍēṅgā aṭē]
he came with his small dog
[preposition + pronoun]
ସେ ତାଙ୍କ ଛୋଟ କୁକୁର ସହିତ ଆସିଲେ
[sē tāṅka chōṭa kukura sahita āsilē]
can you come with me?
[preposition + pronoun]
ତୁମେ ମୋ ସାଙ୍ଗରେ ଆସିପାରିବ କି?
[tumē mō sāṅgarē āsipāriba ki.]

Negation in Oriya

Now let's learn how to make a negative sentence (negation). For example: Saying no, I can't, I don't ... The following examples use negation in different ways and places to demonstrate how they behave in a sentence.

Negation + Rules
Oriya + Pronunciation
I understand you
[affirmative form]
ମୁଁ ତୁମକୁ ବୁଝିପାରୁଛି
[mum̐ tumaku bujhipāruchi]
I don't understand you
[negation + verb]
ମୁଁ ତୁମକୁ ବୁଝିପାରୁ ନାହଁ
[mum̐ tumaku bujhipāru nāham̐]
this is not the correct word
[negation + adjective]
ଏହା ଠିକ୍ ଶବ୍ଦ ନୁହେଁ
[ēhā ṭhik śabda nuhēm̐]
don't leave me
[imperative negation]
ମୋତେ ଛାଡି ଯାଅନାହିଁ
[mōtē chāḍi yā'anāhim̐]
no problem
[negation + noun]
କୌଣସି ସମସ୍ୟା ନାହିଁ
[kauṇasi samasẏā nāhim̐]

Negative Sentences
Oriya + Pronunciation
I don't speak French
[negation + present tense]
ମୁଁ ଫ୍ରେଞ୍ଚ୍ କହିପାରେ ନାହିଁ
[mum̐ phrēñc kahipārē nāhim̐]
she didn't visit Germany
[negation + past tense]
ସେ ଜର୍ମାନୀ ବୁଲିଯାଇ ନାହାଁନ୍ତି
[sē jarmānī buliyā'i nāhām̐nti]
he cannot see us
[negative modal verb]
ସେ ଆମକୁ ଦେଖିପାରିବେ ନାହିଁ
[sē āmaku dēkhipāribē nāhim̐]
can't she play chess?
[interrogative negation]
ସେ ଚେସ୍ ଖେଳିପାରନ୍ତି ନାହିଁ କି?
[sē cēs khēḷipāranti nāhim̐ ki.]
we will not come late
[negation + future tense]
ଆମେ ଡେରିରେ ଆସିବୁ ନାହିଁ
[āmē ḍērirē āsibu nāhim̐]

Questions in Oriya

Now let's learn how to ask questions (interrogative). Such as: what, why, can you ...? Here are some common examples:

English
Oriya
Pronunciation
how?
କିପରି
[kipari]
what?
କ’ଣ?
[ka 'ṇa.]
who?
କିଏ?
[ki'ē.]
why?
କାହିଁକି?
[kāhim̐ki.]
where?
କେଉଁଠାରେ
[kē'um̐ṭhārē]

More of the interrogative form, now in a sentence:

Questions + Rules
Oriya + Pronunciation
where do you live?
[interrogative + verb]
ତୁମେ କୋଉଠି ରୁହ?
[tumē kō'uṭhi ruha.]
does she speak Chinese?
[interrogative verb]
ସେ ଚାଇନିଜ୍ କହିପାରନ୍ତି କି?
[sē cā'inij kahipāranti ki.]
how much is this?
[interrogative preposition]
ଏହାର ଦାମ୍ କେତେ?
[ēhāra dām kētē.]
can I help you?
[interrogative modal verb]
ମୁଁ ତୁମକୁ ସାହାଯ୍ୟ କରିପାରେ କି?
[mum̐ tumaku sāhāyẏa karipārē ki.]
what is your name?
[interrogative preposition]
ତୁମ ନାମ କ’ଣ?
[tuma nāma ka 'ṇa.]

Adverbs in Oriya

It's time to learn the adverbs in Oriya. But what is an adverb? In general, adverbs modify verbs and adjectives. For example: You speak fast. The adverb is [fast] because it describes the verb and answers the question how do you speak?. Here is a list of the most common ones:

Adverbs
Oriya
Pronunciation
now
ଏବେ
[ēbē]
yesterday
ଗତକାଲି
[gatakāli]
today
ଆଜି
[āji]
tonight
ଆଜିରାତି
[ājirāti]
tomorrow
କାଲି
[kāli]
soon
ବହୁତ ଶୀଘ୍ର
[bahuta śīghra]
quickly
ଜଲ୍ଦି
[jaldi]
slowly
ଧିରେ
[dhirē]
together
ଏକାସାଙ୍ଗରେ
[ēkāsāṅgarē]
very
ବହୁତ
[bahuta]
almost
ପ୍ରାୟ
[prāẏa]
always
ସବୁବେଳେ
[sabubēḷē]
usually
ସାଧାରଣତଃ
[sādhāraṇataḥ]
sometimes
ବେଳେବେଳେ
[bēḷēbēḷē]
rarely
ବହୁତ କମ୍
[bahuta kam]
never
ଆଦୌ ନୁହେଁ
[ādau nuhēm̐]

The following examples use the adverbs in different ways and places to demonstrate how it behaves in a sentence.

Adverbs + Rules
Oriya + Pronunciation
do you understand me now?
[pronoun + adverb]
ତୁମେ ଏବେ ମୋତେ ବୁଝିପାରୁଛ କି?
[tumē ēbē mōtē bujhipārucha ki.]
I need help immediately
[noun + adverb]
ମୋତେ ସାଙ୍ଗେସାଙ୍ଗେ ସାହାଯ୍ୟ ଦରକାର
[mōtē sāṅgēsāṅgē sāhāyẏa darakāra]
she is very intelligent
[adverb + adjective]
ସେ ବହୁତ ବୁଦ୍ଧିମାନ
[sē bahuta bud'dhimāna]
I will always love you
[verb + adverb]
ମୁଁ ତୁମକୁ ସବୁବେଳେ ଭଲ ପାଉଥିବି
[mum̐ tumaku sabubēḷē bhala pā'uthibi]
can we learn German together?
[adverb in a question]
ଆମେ ମିଶିକି ଜର୍ମାନୀ ଶିଖିପାରିବା କି?
[āmē miśiki jarmānī śikhipāribā ki.]

Pronouns in Oriya

We're almost done! This time we will learn the pronouns in Oriya. In general, a pronoun can be used instead of a noun. For example instead of saying my teacher speaks 3 languages, you can use the pronoun he, and say he speaks 3 languages. Here is a list of the most common ones:

Personal Pronouns
Oriya
Pronunciation
I
ମୁଁ
[mum̐]
you
ତୁମେ
[tumē]
he
ସେ
[sē]
she
ସେ
[sē]
we
ଆମେ
[āmē]
they
ସେମାନେ
[sēmānē]

Object Pronouns
Oriya
Pronunciation
me
ମୁଁ
[mum̐]
you
ତୁମେ
[tumē]
him
ସେ
[sē]
her
ସେ
[sē]
us
ଆମେ
[āmē]
them
ସେମାନେ
[sēmānē]

Possessive Pronouns
Oriya
Pronunciation
my
ମୋର
[mōra]
your
ତୁମର
[tumara]
his
ତାଙ୍କର
[tāṅkara]
her
ତାଙ୍କର
[tāṅkara]
our
ଆମର
[āmara]
their
ସେମାନଙ୍କର
[sēmānaṅkara]

I think it's better to put the above example in a sentence to better assist you. The following examples use pronouns in different ways and places to demonstrate how they behave in a sentence. We will start with the personal pronouns.

Personal Pronouns
Oriya + Pronunciation
I am your friend
[1st pronoun + verb]
ମୁଁ ତୁମ ସାଙ୍ଗ
[mum̐ tuma sāṅga]
you speak very fast
[2nd pronoun + adverb]
ତୁମେ ବହୁତ ଜଲ୍ଦି ଜଲ୍ଦି କଥା କହୁଛ
[tumē bahuta jaldi jaldi kathā kahucha]
he has three dogs
[3rd pronoun + verb]
ତାଙ୍କର ତିନିଟା କୁକୁର ଅଛି
[tāṅkara tiniṭā kukura achi]
she can speak German
[3rd pronoun + verb]
ସେ ଜର୍ମାନୀ କହିପାରନ୍ତି
[sē jarmānī kahipāranti]
we will not come late
[1st plural pronoun]
ଆମେ ଡେରିରେ ଆସିବୁ ନାହିଁ
[āmē ḍērirē āsibu nāhim̐]
they bought milk and bread
[3rd plural pronoun]
ସେମାନେ କ୍ଷୀର ଆଉ ପାଉଁରୁଟି ଆଣିଛନ୍ତି
[sēmānē kṣīra ā'u pā'um̐ruṭi āṇichanti]

The object pronoun is used as a target by a verb, and usually come after that verb. For example: I gave him my book. The object pronoun here is him. Here are more examples:

Object Pronouns
Oriya + Pronunciation
can you tell me your name?
[1st object pronoun]
ତୁମେ ମୋତେ ତୁମର ନାଁ କହିପାରିବ କି?
[tumē mōtē tumara nām̐ kahipāriba ki.]
I will give you money
[2nd object pronoun]
ମୁଁ ତୁମକୁ ପଇସା ଦେବି
[mum̐ tumaku pa'isā dēbi]
she wrote him a letter
[3rd object pronoun]
ସେ ତାଙ୍କୁ ଗୋଟେ ଚିଠି ଲେଖିଲେ
[sē tāṅku gōṭē ciṭhi lēkhilē]
they visited her yesterday
[3rd object pronoun]
ସେମାନେ ତାଙ୍କ ପାଖକୁ ଗତକାଲି ଯାଇଥିଲେ
[sēmānē tāṅka pākhaku gatakāli yā'ithilē]
can she help us?
[1st pl. object pronoun]
ସେ ଆମକୁ ସାହାଯ୍ୟ କରିପାରିବେ କି?
[sē āmaku sāhāyẏa karipāribē ki.]
he gave them food
[3rd pl. object pronoun]
ସେ ସେମାନଙ୍କୁ ଖାଦ୍ୟ ଦେଲେ
[sē sēmānaṅku khādẏa dēlē]

Possessive Pronouns
Oriya + Pronunciation
my name is Maya
[1st possessive pronoun]
ମୋ ନାଁ ହେଉଛି ମାୟା
[mō nām̐ hē'uchi māẏā]
your brother lives here
[2nd possessive pronoun]
ତୁମ ଭାଇ ଏଠାରେ ରୁହନ୍ତି
[tuma bhā'i ēṭhārē ruhanti]
her mother cooks for us
[3rd possessive pronoun]
ତାଙ୍କ ମାଆ ଆମ ପାଇଁ ରୋଷେଇ କଲେ
[tāṅka mā'ā āma pā'im̐ rōṣē'i kalē]
his hobby is reading books
[3rd possessive pronoun]
ତାଙ୍କର ସଉକ ହେଉଛି ବହି ପଢିବା
[tāṅkara sa'uka hē'uchi bahi paḍhibā]
our dream is to visit Paris
[1st pl. possessive pronoun]
ଆମର ସ୍ବପ୍ନ ହେଉଛି ପ୍ୟାରିସ୍ ବୁଲିଯିବା
[āmara sbapna hē'uchi pẏāris buliyibā]
their house is not far
[3rd pl. possessive pronoun]
ତାଙ୍କ ଘର ବେଶି ଦୂର ନୁହେଁ
[tāṅka ghara bēśi dūra nuhēm̐]

One more thing you need to know is the demonstrative pronouns. They're very easy to learn.

Demonstrative Pronouns
Oriya
Pronunciation
this is my house
ଏଇଟା ମୋ ଘର
[ē'iṭā mō ghara]
that restaurant is far
ସେହି ରେଷ୍ଟୁରାଣ୍ଟ ବହୁତ ଦୂର
[sēhi rēṣṭurāṇṭa bahuta dūra]
these apples are delicious
ଏହି ସେଓଗୁଡାକ ବହୁତ ମିଠା
[ēhi sē'ōguḍāka bahuta miṭhā]
those stars are shiny
ସେହି ତାରାଗୁଡାକ ଚମକୁଛନ୍ତି
[sēhi tārāguḍāka camakuchanti]

I hope you learned a lot about the Oriya grammar in this lesson. If you have any question about this lesson please contact me here. The next lesson is below, have fun!

Oriya Phrases   Oriya Phrases

Oriya Vocabulary   Oriya Vocabulary



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Inspirational Quote: First say to yourself what you would be; and then do what you have to do. Epictetus