Kurdish Grammar

Welcome to the 8th lesson about Kurdish grammar. We will first learn about prepositions, negation, questions, adverbs, and pronouns including: personal, object and possessive pronouns. To hear the pronunciation, just click on the sound icon.

We will start with prepositions. In general, they are used to link words to other words. For example: I speak Kurdish and English the preposition is [and] because it connects both words Kurdish and English. The following is a list of the most used prepositions in Kurdish.

Prepositions
Kurdish
Pronunciation
and
وە هەروەها
[we herweha] Audio
above
له ‌سه‌ر
[le ser] Audio
under
له ‌ژێر
[le zher] Audio
before
پێش
[pesh] Audio
after
پاش
[pash] Audio
in front of
له‌ به‌رده‌م
[le berdem] Audio
behind
له ‌پشت
[le phisht] Audio
far from
دوور له‌
[dwr le] Audio
near
نزیک
[nzeek] Audio
in
له‌
[le] Audio
inside
له‌ ناو
[le naw] Audio
outside
له‌ ده‌ره‌وه‌
[le derewe] Audio
with
له‌گه‌ڵ
[legel] Audio
without
به‌ بێ
[ba be] Audio
about
ده‌رباره‌
[derbare] Audio
between
له ‌نێوان
[le newan] Audio
but
به‌ڵام
[belam] Audio
for
بۆ
[bo] Audio
from
له‌
[le] Audio
to
تا
[ta] Audio

Preposition Grammar Rules

The following examples use prepositions in different ways and places to demonstrate how they behave in a sentence.

Prepositions + Rules
Kurdish + Pronunciation
I eat without a knife
[preposition + noun]
من بە بێ چەقۆ نان دەخۆم Audio
[mn ba be cheqo nan dakhom]
she lives near the church
[verb + preposition]
ئەو لە نزیک کەنیسەکە دەژی Audio
[aw le nzeek keneeseke dezhy]
he is taller than her
[adjective + preposition]
ئەو درێژترە لە کچەکە Audio
[aw drezhtre le kcheke]
he came with his small dog
[preposition + pronoun]
ئەو لەگەڵ سەگە بچووکەکەی هات Audio
[ae legel sege bchwkekey hat]
can you come with me?
[preposition + pronoun]
ئایا تۆ دەتوانیت بێیت لەگەڵم؟ Audio
[aya to detwaneet beyt legelm?]

Negation in Kurdish

Now let's learn how to make a negative sentence (negation). For example: Saying no, I can't, I don't ... The following examples use negation in different ways and places to demonstrate how they behave in a sentence.

Negation + Rules
Kurdish + Pronunciation
I understand you
[affirmative form]
من لێت تێ دەگەم Audio
[mn let te degem]
I don't understand you
[negation + verb]
من لێت تێ ناگەم Audio
[mn let te nagem]
this is not the correct word
[negation + adjective]
ئەمە ووشە ڕاستەکە نییە Audio
[ame wshe tasteke nya]
don't leave me
[imperative negation]
بەچێم مەهێڵە Audio
[bejem mehela]
no problem
[negation + noun]
کێشە نییە Audio
[keshe nya]

Negative Sentences
Kurdish + Pronunciation
I don't speak French
[negation + present tense]
من بە فەرەنسی قسە ناکەم Audio
[mn be ferensy qse nakem]
she didn't visit Germany
[negation + past tense]
ئەو سەردانی ئەڵمانیای نەکرد Audio
[aw serdany almanyay nekrd]
he cannot see us
[negative modal verb]
ئەو ناتوانێت بمان بینێت Audio
[aw natwanet bman binet]
can't she play chess?
[interrogative negation]
ئەو ناتوانێت یاری شەتڕەنج بکات؟ Audio
[aw natwanet yary shetrenj bkat?]
we will not come late
[negation + future tense]
ئێمە درەنگ نایەین Audio
[eme dreng nayeyn]

Questions in Kurdish

Now let's learn how to ask questions (interrogative). Such as: what, why, can you ...? Here are some common examples:

English
Kurdish
Pronunciation
how?
چۆن؟
[chon?] Audio
what?
چی؟
[chy?] Audio
who?
کێ؟
[ke?] Audio
why?
بۆچی؟
[bochy?] Audio
where?
لە کوێ؟
[le kwe?] Audio

More of the interrogative form, now in a sentence:

Questions + Rules
Kurdish + Pronunciation
where do you live?
[interrogative + verb]
تۆ لە کوێ دەژیت؟ Audio
[to le kwe dezheet?]
does she speak Chinese?
[interrogative verb]
ئایا ئەو بە چینی قسە دەکات؟ Audio
[aya aw be chiny qse dekat?]
how much is this?
[interrogative preposition]
ئەمە بە چەندە؟ Audio
[ame be chende?]
can I help you?
[interrogative modal verb]
دەتوانم یارمەتی تۆ بدەم؟ Audio
[detwanm yarmety to bdem?]
what is your name?
[interrogative preposition]
تۆ ناوت چییە؟ Audio
[to nawt chya?]

Adverbs in Kurdish

It's time to learn the adverbs in Kurdish. But what is an adverb? In general, adverbs modify verbs and adjectives. For example: You speak fast. The adverb is [fast] because it describes the verb and answers the question how do you speak?. Here is a list of the most common ones:

Adverbs
Kurdish
Pronunciation
now
ئێستا
[esta] Audio
yesterday
دوێنێ
[dwene] Audio
today
ئه‌مڕۆ
[amro] Audio
tonight
ئه‌مشه‌و
[amshew] Audio
tomorrow
سبه‌ینێ
[sbeine] Audio
soon
به‌م زووانه‌
[bem zwane] Audio
quickly
خێرا
[khera] Audio
slowly
هێواش
[hewash] Audio
together
پێکه‌وه‌
[pekewe] Audio
very
زۆر
[zor] Audio
almost
نزیکه‌ی
[nzeekey] Audio
always
هه‌میشه‌
[hemeeshe] Audio
usually
زۆربه‌ی کات
[zorbey kat] Audio
sometimes
جاربه‌جار
[jarbejar] Audio
rarely
به‌ ئه‌سته‌م
[be astem] Audio
never
هه‌رگیز
[hargeez] Audio

The following examples use the adverbs in different ways and places to demonstrate how it behaves in a sentence.

Adverbs + Rules
Kurdish + Pronunciation
do you understand me now?
[pronoun + adverb]
ئایا ئێستا لێم تێ دەگەیت؟ Audio
[aya esta lem te degeyt?]
I need help immediately
[noun + adverb]
من هەر ئێستا پێویستم بە یارمەتییە Audio
[mn her esta pewisteem be yarmateya.]
she is very intelligent
[adverb + adjective]
ئەو زۆر زیرەکە Audio
[aw zor zeereke]
I will always love you
[verb + adverb]
من هەمیشە تۆم خۆش دەوێت Audio
[mn hemishe tom khosh dewet]
can we learn German together?
[adverb in a question]
دەتوانین پێکەوە فێری ئەڵمانی بین؟ Audio
[detwaneen pekewe fery almany byn?]

Pronouns in Kurdish

We're almost done! This time we will learn the pronouns in Kurdish. In general, a pronoun can be used instead of a noun. For example instead of saying my teacher speaks 3 languages, you can use the pronoun he, and say he speaks 3 languages. Here is a list of the most common ones:

Personal Pronouns
Kurdish
Pronunciation
I
من
[mn] Audio
you
تۆ
[to] Audio
he
ئەو (بۆ کوڕ)
[aw (for boys)] Audio
she
ئەو (بۆ کچ)
[aw (for girls)] Audio
we
ئێمه‌
[eme] Audio
they
ئه‌وان
[awan] Audio

Object Pronouns
Kurdish
Pronunciation
me
من
[mn] Audio
you
تۆ
[to] Audio
him
ئه‌و (بۆ کوڕ)
[aw (for boys)] Audio
her
ئه‌و (بۆ کچ)
[aw (for girls)] Audio
us
ئێمه‌
[eme] Audio
them
ئه‌وان
[awan] Audio

Possessive Pronouns
Kurdish
Pronunciation
my
[m] Audio
your
[t] Audio
his
[y] Audio
her
[y] Audio
our
-مان
[man] Audio
their
-یان
[yan] Audio

I think it's better to put the above example in a sentence to better assist you. The following examples use pronouns in different ways and places to demonstrate how they behave in a sentence. We will start with the personal pronouns.

Personal Pronouns
Kurdish + Pronunciation
I am your friend
[1st pronoun + verb]
من هاوڕێی تۆم Audio
[mn hawrey tom]
you speak very fast
[2nd pronoun + adverb]
تۆ زۆر بە پەلە قسە دەکەیت Audio
[to zor be pele qse dekeyt]
he has three dogs
[3rd pronoun + verb]
ئەو سێ سەگی هەیە Audio
[aw se segy heye]
she can speak German
[3rd pronoun + verb]
ئەو دەتوانێت بە ئەڵمانی قسە بکات Audio
[aw detwanet be almany qse bkat]
we will not come late
[1st plural pronoun]
ئێمە درەنگ نایەین Audio
[eme dreng nayein]
they bought milk and bread
[3rd plural pronoun]
ئەوان شیرو نانیان کڕی Audio
[awan sheer w nanyan kry]

The object pronoun is used as a target by a verb, and usually come after that verb. For example: I gave him my book. The object pronoun here is him. Here are more examples:

Object Pronouns
Kurdish + Pronunciation
can you tell me your name?
[1st object pronoun]
دەتوانیت ناوی خۆتم پێ بڵیی؟ Audio
[detwaneet nawy khotm pe bley?]
I will give you money
[2nd object pronoun]
من پارە بە تۆ دەدەم Audio
[mn pare be to dedem]
she wrote him a letter
[3rd object pronoun]
ئەو نامەی بۆ ئەو نوسی Audio
[aw namey bo aw nwsy]
they visited her yesterday
[3rd object pronoun]
ئەوان دوێنێ سەردانی ئەویان کرد Audio
[awan dwene serdany weyan krd]
can she help us?
[1st pl. object pronoun]
ئەو دەتوانێت یارمەتیمان بدات؟ Audio
[aw datwanet yarmeteeman bdat?]
he gave them food
[3rd pl. object pronoun]
ئەو خواردنی بەوان دا Audio
[aw khwardny bewan da]

Possessive Pronouns
Kurdish + Pronunciation
my name is Maya
[1st possessive pronoun]
من ناوم مایایە Audio
[mn nawm mayaya]
your brother lives here
[2nd possessive pronoun]
براکەت لێرە دەژی Audio
[braket lere dezhy]
her mother cooks for us
[3rd possessive pronoun]
دایکی خواردنمان بۆ لێ دەنێت Audio
[daiky khwardnman bo le denet]
his hobby is reading books
[3rd possessive pronoun]
خولیای خوێندنەوەی کتێبە Audio
[khwliay khwendnewey ktebe]
our dream is to visit Paris
[1st pl. possessive pronoun]
خەونمان سەردانی پاریسە Audio
[khewnman serdany parisa]
their house is not far
[3rd pl. possessive pronoun]
ماڵەکەیان زۆر دوور نییە Audio
[malekeyan zor dwr nya]

One more thing you need to know is the demonstrative pronouns. They're very easy to learn.

Demonstrative Pronouns
Kurdish
Pronunciation
this is my house
ئەمە ماڵی منە
[ame maly mne] Audio
that restaurant is far
ئەو چێشتخانەیە دوورە
[aw cheshtkhaneye dwre] Audio
these apples are delicious
ئەم سێوانە زۆر بەتامن
[am sewane zor be tamn] Audio
those stars are shiny
ئەو ئەەستێرانە درەوشاوەن
[aw asterane drewshawen] Audio

I hope you learned a lot about the Kurdish grammar in this lesson. If you have any question about this lesson please contact me here. The next lesson is below, have fun!

Kurdish Phrases   Kurdish Phrases

Kurdish Vocabulary   Kurdish Vocabulary



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Inspirational Quote: First say to yourself what you would be; and then do what you have to do. Epictetus