Malayalam Grammar

Welcome to the 8th lesson about Malayalam grammar. We will first learn about prepositions, negation, questions, adverbs, and pronouns including: personal, object and possessive pronouns. To hear the pronunciation, just click on the sound icon.

We will start with prepositions. In general, they are used to link words to other words. For example: I speak Malayalam and English the preposition is [and] because it connects both words Malayalam and English. The following is a list of the most used prepositions in Malayalam.

Prepositions
Malayalam
Pronunciation
and
ഉം
[u'] Audio
above
മുകളില്‍
[mu kḷeile‍] Audio
under
അടിയില്‍
[aṭeiyeile‍] Audio
before
മുന്‍പില്‍
[mu ne‍peile‍] Audio
after
പിന്നെ
[peinen] Audio
in front of
മുന്‍പില്‍
[mu ne‍peile‍] Audio
behind
പിറകില്‍
[peiṟekile‍] Audio
far from
ഏറെ അകലെ
[eṟe akl] Audio
near
അടുത്ത്
[aṭu theth] Audio
in
അകത്തു
[akthethu] Audio
inside
ഉള്ളില്‍
[uḷeḷeile‍] Audio
outside
പുറത്തു
[pu ṟethethu] Audio
with
കു‌ടെ
[ku ‌ṭ] Audio
without
ഇല്ലാതെ
[ilelath] Audio
about
പറ്റി
[peṟeṟei] Audio
between
നടുവില്‍
[neṭu veile‍] Audio
but
എന്നാല്‍
[enenale‍] Audio
for
വേണ്ടി
[veṇeṭei] Audio
from
നിന്നും
[neinenu '] Audio
to
ക്ക്
[kk] Audio

Preposition Grammar Rules

The following examples use prepositions in different ways and places to demonstrate how they behave in a sentence.

Prepositions + Rules
Malayalam + Pronunciation
I eat without a knife
[preposition + noun]
ഞാന്‍ കത്തിയില്ലാതെ ഭക്ഷിക്കുന്നു Audio
[ñane‍ kthetheiyeilelathe bheksśeikku nenu]
she lives near the church
[verb + preposition]
അവള്‍ പള്ളിക്കടുത്ത് താമസിക്കുന്നു Audio
[aveḷe‍ peḷeḷeikkṭu thethe thameseikku nenu]
he is taller than her
[adjective + preposition]
അവനു അവളെക്കാള്‍ പൊക്കമുണ്ട് Audio
[avenu aveḷekkaḷe‍ pokkmu ṇeṭ]
he came with his small dog
[preposition + pronoun]
അവന്‍റെ ചെറിയ പട്ടിയുമായി വന്നു Audio
[avene‍ṟe cheṟeiye peṭeṭeiyu mayei venenu]
can you come with me?
[preposition + pronoun]
എനിക്കൊപ്പം വരാമോ ? Audio
[eneikkopepe' veramo ?]

Negation in Malayalam

Now let's learn how to make a negative sentence (negation). For example: Saying no, I can't, I don't ... The following examples use negation in different ways and places to demonstrate how they behave in a sentence.

Negation + Rules
Malayalam + Pronunciation
I understand you
[affirmative form]
നിങ്ങളെ എനിക്ക് മനസ്സിലായി Audio
[neineneḷe eneikk meneseseilayei]
I don't understand you
[negation + verb]
എനിക്ക് നിങ്ങളെ മനസ്സിലാകുന്നില്ല Audio
[eneikk neineneḷe meneseseilaku neneilel]
this is not the correct word
[negation + adjective]
ഇത് ശരിയായ വാക്കല്ല Audio
[ithe ṣereiyaye vakklel]
don't leave me
[imperative negation]
എന്നെ വിട്ടു പോകരുത് Audio
[enene veiṭeṭu pokru th]
no problem
[negation + noun]
പ്രശ്നമില്ല Audio
[pereṣenemeilel]

Negative Sentences
Malayalam + Pronunciation
I don't speak French
[negation + present tense]
ഞാന്‍ ഫ്രഞ്ച് സംസാരിക്കില്ല Audio
[ñane‍ phereñech se'sareikkilel]
she didn't visit Germany
[negation + past tense]
അവള്‍ ജര്‍മ്മനി സന്ദര്സിച്ചില്ല Audio
[aveḷe‍ jere‍memenei senedereseichchilel]
he cannot see us
[negative modal verb]
അവന്‍ നമ്മളെ കാണില്ല Audio
[avene‍ nememeḷe kaṇeilel]
can't she play chess?
[interrogative negation]
അവള്‍ ചെസ്സ്‌ കളിക്കുമോ ? Audio
[aveḷe‍ chesese‌ kḷeikku mo ?]
we will not come late
[negation + future tense]
ഞങ്ങള്‍ താമസിച്ചു വരില്ല Audio
[ñeneneḷe‍ thameseichchu vereilel]

Questions in Malayalam

Now let's learn how to ask questions (interrogative). Such as: what, why, can you ...? Here are some common examples:

English
Malayalam
Pronunciation
how?
എങ്ങനെ ?
[enenene ?] Audio
what?
എന്തു ?
[enethu ?] Audio
who?
ആര് ?
[are ?] Audio
why?
എന്തുകൊണ്ട് ?
[enethu koṇeṭe ?] Audio
where?
അവിടെ ?
[aveiṭe ?] Audio

More of the interrogative form, now in a sentence:

Questions + Rules
Malayalam + Pronunciation
where do you live?
[interrogative + verb]
എവിടെ താമസിക്കുന്നു ? Audio
[eveiṭe thameseikku nenu ?]
does she speak Chinese?
[interrogative verb]
അവന്‍ ചൈനീസ് സംസാരിക്കുമോ ? Audio
[avene‍ chainīse se'sareikku mo ?]
how much is this?
[interrogative preposition]
ഇതിനു എത്രയാ ? Audio
[itheinu ethereya ?]
can I help you?
[interrogative modal verb]
സഹായിക്കട്ടെ ? Audio
[sehayeikkṭeṭe ?]
what is your name?
[interrogative preposition]
എന്താ പേര് ? Audio
[enetha pere ?]

Adverbs in Malayalam

It's time to learn the adverbs in Malayalam. But what is an adverb? In general, adverbs modify verbs and adjectives. For example: You speak fast. The adverb is [fast] because it describes the verb and answers the question how do you speak?. Here is a list of the most common ones:

Adverbs
Malayalam
Pronunciation
now
ഇപ്പോള്‍
[ipepoḷe‍] Audio
yesterday
ഇന്നലെ
[inenel] Audio
today
ഇന്ന്
[inen] Audio
tonight
ഇന്നുരാത്രി
[inenu ratherei] Audio
tomorrow
നാളെ
[naḷ] Audio
soon
ഉടന്‍
[uṭene‍] Audio
quickly
ക്ഷിപ്രം
[ksśeipere'] Audio
slowly
സാവധാനം
[savedane'] Audio
together
ഒരുമിച്ചു
[oru meichchu] Audio
very
വളരെ
[veḷer] Audio
almost
ഏകദേശം
[ekdeṣe'] Audio
always
എപ്പഴും
[epepeḻu '] Audio
usually
സാധാരണയായി
[sadareṇeyayei] Audio
sometimes
ചിലപ്പോള്‍
[chilepepoḷe‍] Audio
rarely
വിരളമായി
[veireḷemayei] Audio
never
ഒരിക്കലുമില്ല
[oreikklu meilel] Audio

The following examples use the adverbs in different ways and places to demonstrate how it behaves in a sentence.

Adverbs + Rules
Malayalam + Pronunciation
do you understand me now?
[pronoun + adverb]
എന്നെ ഇപ്പൊ മനസ്സിലായോ ? Audio
[enene ipepo meneseseilayo ?]
I need help immediately
[noun + adverb]
എനിക്ക് സഹായം ഉദം വേണം Audio
[eneikk sehaye' ude' veṇe']
she is very intelligent
[adverb + adjective]
അവള്‍ കാര്യവിവരമുള്ളവ ളാണ് Audio
[aveḷe‍ kareyeveiveremu ḷeḷeve ḷaṇ]
I will always love you
[verb + adverb]
നിങ്ങളെ ഇപ്പോഴും സ്ന്വ്ഹിക്കും Audio
[neineneḷe ipepoḻu ' seneveheikku ']
can we learn German together?
[adverb in a question]
നമുക്ക് ജര്‍മന്‍ ഒപ്പം പഠിക്കാമോ? Audio
[nemu kk jere‍mene‍ opepe' peṭhikkamo?]

Pronouns in Malayalam

We're almost done! This time we will learn the pronouns in Malayalam. In general, a pronoun can be used instead of a noun. For example instead of saying my teacher speaks 3 languages, you can use the pronoun he, and say he speaks 3 languages. Here is a list of the most common ones:

Personal Pronouns
Malayalam
Pronunciation
I
ഞാന്‍
[ñane‍] Audio
you
നിങ്ങള്‍
[neineneḷe‍] Audio
he
അവന്‍
[avene‍] Audio
she
ആവള്‍
[aveḷe‍] Audio
we
ഞങ്ങള്‍
[ñeneneḷe‍] Audio
they
അവര്‍
[avere‍] Audio

Object Pronouns
Malayalam
Pronunciation
me
എനിക്ക്
[eneikk] Audio
you
നിങ്ങള്‍
[neineneḷe‍] Audio
him
അവന്
[aven] Audio
her
അവള്‍ക്
[aveḷe‍k] Audio
us
നമുക്ക്
[nemu kk] Audio
them
അവര്‍ക്
[avere‍k] Audio

Possessive Pronouns
Malayalam
Pronunciation
my
എന്‍റെ
[ene‍ṟ] Audio
your
നിങ്ങളുടെ
[neineneḷu ṭ] Audio
his
അവന്‍റെ
[avene‍ṟ] Audio
her
അവളുടെ
[aveḷu ṭ] Audio
our
നമ്മുടെ
[nememu ṭ] Audio
their
അവരുടെ
[averu ṭ] Audio

I think it's better to put the above example in a sentence to better assist you. The following examples use pronouns in different ways and places to demonstrate how they behave in a sentence. We will start with the personal pronouns.

Personal Pronouns
Malayalam + Pronunciation
I am your friend
[1st pronoun + verb]
ഞാന്‍ നിങ്ങളുടെ സുഹൃത്താണ്‌ Audio
[ñane‍ neineneḷu ṭe su herethethaṇe‌]
you speak very fast
[2nd pronoun + adverb]
നിങ്ങള്‍ വേഗം സംസാരിക്കുന്നു Audio
[neineneḷe‍ vegue' se'sareikku nenu]
he has three dogs
[3rd pronoun + verb]
അയാള്‍ക് മുന്നു പട്ടിയുണ്ട് Audio
[ayaḷe‍k mu nenu peṭeṭeiyu ṇeṭ]
she can speak German
[3rd pronoun + verb]
അവള്‍ക് ജര്‍മന്‍ സംസാരിക്കാന്‍ അറിയാം Audio
[aveḷe‍k jere‍mene‍ se'sareikkane‍ aṟeiya']
we will not come late
[1st plural pronoun]
ഞങ്ങള്‍ വൈകി വരികയില്ല Audio
[ñeneneḷe‍ vaiki vereikyeilel]
they bought milk and bread
[3rd plural pronoun]
അവര്‍ പാലും റൊട്ടിയും വാങ്ങി Audio
[avere‍ palu ' ṟoṭeṭeiyu ' vanenei]

The object pronoun is used as a target by a verb, and usually come after that verb. For example: I gave him my book. The object pronoun here is him. Here are more examples:

Object Pronouns
Malayalam + Pronunciation
can you tell me your name?
[1st object pronoun]
നിങളുടെ പേര് എന്നോട് പറയുമോ ? Audio
[neineḷu ṭe pere enenoṭe peṟeyu mo ?]
I will give you money
[2nd object pronoun]
ഞാന്‍ നിങ്ങള്‍ക് പണം തരാം Audio
[ñane‍ neineneḷe‍k peṇe' thera']
she wrote him a letter
[3rd object pronoun]
അവള്‍ അയാള്‍ക് കത്തെഴുതി Audio
[aveḷe‍ ayaḷe‍k kthetheḻu thei]
they visited her yesterday
[3rd object pronoun]
അവര്‍ അവളെ ഇന്നലെ സന്ദര്‍ശിച്ചു Audio
[avere‍ aveḷe inenele senedere‍ṣeichchu]
can she help us?
[1st pl. object pronoun]
അവള്‍ക്ക് നമ്മളെ സഹായിക്കാന്‍ സാധിക്കുമോ Audio
[aveḷe‍kk nememeḷe sehayeikkane‍ sadeikku mo]
he gave them food
[3rd pl. object pronoun]
അയാള്‍ അവര്‍ക്ക് ഭക്ഷണം കൊടുത്തു Audio
[ayaḷe‍ avere‍kk bheksśeṇe' koṭu thethu]

Possessive Pronouns
Malayalam + Pronunciation
my name is Maya
[1st possessive pronoun]
എന്‍റെ പേര് മായ ആണ് Audio
[ene‍ṟe pere maye aṇ]
your brother lives here
[2nd possessive pronoun]
നിങ്ങളുടെ സഹോദരന്‍ ഇവിടെ താമസിക്കുന്നു Audio
[neineneḷu ṭe sehoderene‍ iveiṭe thameseikku nenu]
her mother cooks for us
[3rd possessive pronoun]
അവളുടെ അമ്മ ഞങ്ങള്‍ക് പാചകം ചെയ്യുന്നു Audio
[aveḷu ṭe ameme ñeneneḷe‍k pachk' cheyeyu nenu]
his hobby is reading books
[3rd possessive pronoun]
അയാളുടെ ഹോബി പുത്തക വായനയാണ് Audio
[ayaḷu ṭe hobei pu thethek vayeneyaṇ]
our dream is to visit Paris
[1st pl. possessive pronoun]
ഞങ്ങളുടെ സ്വപ്നം പാരിസ്‌ സന്ദര്സിക്കുകയാണ് Audio
[ñeneneḷu ṭe sevepene' pareise‌ senedereseikku kyaṇ]
their house is not far
[3rd pl. possessive pronoun]
അവരുടെ വീട് ദൂരെ അല്ല Audio
[averu ṭe vīṭe du re alel]

One more thing you need to know is the demonstrative pronouns. They're very easy to learn.

Demonstrative Pronouns
Malayalam
Pronunciation
this is my house
ഇത് എന്‍റെ വീടാണ്
[ithe ene‍ṟe vīṭaṇ] Audio
that restaurant is far
ആ ഭക്ഷണശാല ദൂരെ ആണ്
[a bheksśeṇeṣale du re aṇ] Audio
these apples are delicious
ഈ ആപ്ളുകള്‍ സ്വാതിഷ്ട്ടമാണ്
[ī apeḷu kḷe‍ sevatheisśeṭeṭemaṇ] Audio
those stars are shiny
ആ നക്ഷത്രങ്ങള്‍ തിളങ്ങുന്നു
[a neksśethereneneḷe‍ theiḷenenu nenu] Audio

I hope you learned a lot about the Malayalam grammar in this lesson. If you have any question about this lesson please contact me here. The next lesson is below, have fun!

Malayalam Phrases   Malayalam Phrases

Malayalam Vocabulary   Malayalam Vocabulary



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Inspirational Quote: First say to yourself what you would be; and then do what you have to do. Epictetus