Kannada Grammar

Welcome to the 8th lesson about Kannada grammar. We will first learn about prepositions, negation, questions, adverbs, and pronouns including: personal, object and possessive pronouns. To hear the pronunciation, just click on the sound icon.

We will start with prepositions. In general, they are used to link words to other words. For example: I speak Kannada and English the preposition is [and] because it connects both words Kannada and English. The following is a list of the most used prepositions in Kannada.

Prepositions
Kannada
Pronunciation
and
 ಮತ್ತು
[Mattu] Audio
above
ಮೇಲೆ
[Mēle] Audio
under
ಕೆಳಗೆ
[Keḷage] Audio
before
ಹಿಂದೆ
[Hinde] Audio
after
ಆಮೇಲೆ
[Āmēle] Audio
in front of
ಮುಂದೆ
[Munde] Audio
behind
ಹಿಂದುಗಡೆ
[Hindugaḍe] Audio
far from
ದೂರ
[Dūra] Audio
near
ಹತ್ತಿರ
[Hattira] Audio
in
ಅಲ್ಲಿ
[Alli] Audio
inside
ಒಳಗೆ
[Oḷage] Audio
outside
ಹೊರಗೆ
[Horage] Audio
with
ಜೊತೆಯಲ್ಲಿ
[Joteyalli] Audio
without
ಇಲ್ಲದೆ
[Illade] Audio
about
ಬಗ್ಗೆ
[Bagge] Audio
between
ಮಧ್ಯೆ
[Madhye] Audio
but
ಆದರೆ
[Ādare] Audio
for
ಅದಕ್ಕಾಗಿ
[Adakkāgi] Audio
from
ಅದರಿಂದ
[Adarinda] Audio
to
ಅದಕ್ಕೆ
[Adakke] Audio

Preposition Grammar Rules

The following examples use prepositions in different ways and places to demonstrate how they behave in a sentence.

Prepositions + Rules
Kannada + Pronunciation
I eat without a knife
[preposition + noun]
ನಾನು ಚಾಕು ಇಲ್ಲದೆ ತಿನ್ನುವೆ Audio
[Nānu cāku illade tinnuve]
she lives near the church
[verb + preposition]
ಅವಳು ಚರ್ಚಿನ ಬಳಿ ವಾಸಿಸುತ್ತಾಳೆ Audio
[Avaḷu carcina baḷi vāsisuttāḷe]
he is taller than her
[adjective + preposition]
ಅವನು ಅವಳಿಗಿಂತ ಎತ್ತರವಾಗಿದ್ದಾನೆ Audio
[Avanu avaḷiginta ettaravāgiddāne]
he came with his small dog
[preposition + pronoun]
ತನ್ನ ಸಣ್ಣ ನಾಯಿ ಬಂದಿತು Audio
[Tanna saṇṇa nāyi banditu]
can you come with me?
[preposition + pronoun]
ನೀವು ನನ್ನೊಂದಿಗೆ ಬರಬಹುದೇ Audio
[Nīvu nannondige barabahudē]

Negation in Kannada

Now let's learn how to make a negative sentence (negation). For example: Saying no, I can't, I don't ... The following examples use negation in different ways and places to demonstrate how they behave in a sentence.

Negation + Rules
Kannada + Pronunciation
I understand you
[affirmative form]
ನನಗೆ ಅರ್ಥವಾಗುತ್ತೆ Audio
[Nanage arthavāgutte]
I don't understand you
[negation + verb]
ನೀವು ನನಗೆ ಅರ್ಥವಾಗುವುದಿಲ್ಲ Audio
[Nīvu nanage arthavāguvudilla]
this is not the correct word
[negation + adjective]
ಇದು ಸರಿಯಾದ ಪದ ಅಲ್ಲ Audio
[Idu sariyāda pada alla]
don't leave me
[imperative negation]
ನನ್ನನ್ನು ಬಿಡಬೇಡಿ Audio
[Nannannu biḍabēḍi]
no problem
[negation + noun]
ಏನು ತೊಂದರೆ ಇಲ್ಲ Audio
[Ēnu tondare illa]

Negative Sentences
Kannada + Pronunciation
I don't speak French
[negation + present tense]
ನಾನು ಫ್ರೆಂಚ್ ಮಾತನಾಡುವುದಿಲ್ಲ Audio
[Nānu phren̄c mātanāḍuvudilla]
she didn't visit Germany
[negation + past tense]
ಅವಳು ಜರ್ಮನಿ ಭೇಟಿ ನೀಡಲಿಲ್ಲ Audio
[Avaḷu jarmani bhēṭi nīḍalilla]
he cannot see us
[negative modal verb]
ಅವನಿಂದ ನಮ್ಮನ್ನು ನೋಡಲಾಗುವುದಿಲ್ಲ Audio
[Avaninda nam'mannu nōḍalāguvudilla]
can't she play chess?
[interrogative negation]
ಅವಳಿಗೆ ಚದುರಂಗದ ಆಟದ ಸಾಧ್ಯವಿಲ್ಲವೆ Audio
[Avaḷige caduraṅgada āṭada sādhyavillave]
we will not come late
[negation + future tense]
ನಾವು ಕೊನೆಯಲ್ಲಿ ಬರುವುದಿಲ್ಲ Audio
[Nāvu koneyalli baruvudilla]

Questions in Kannada

Now let's learn how to ask questions (interrogative). Such as: what, why, can you ...? Here are some common examples:

English
Kannada
Pronunciation
how?
ಹೇಗೆ?
[Hēge?] Audio
what?
ಏನು?
[Ēnu?] Audio
who?
ಯಾರು?
[Yāru?] Audio
why?
ಏಕೆ?
[Ēke?] Audio
where?
ಅಲ್ಲಿ?
[Alli?] Audio

More of the interrogative form, now in a sentence:

Questions + Rules
Kannada + Pronunciation
where do you live?
[interrogative + verb]
ನೀವು ಎಲ್ಲಿ ವಾಸಿಸುತ್ತಿರ Audio
[Nīvu elli vāsisuttira]
does she speak Chinese?
[interrogative verb]
ಅವಳು ಚೈನೀಸ್ ಮಾತನಾಡುವಳೇ ? Audio
[Avaḷu cainīs mātanāḍuvaḷē?]
how much is this?
[interrogative preposition]
ಇದು ಎಷ್ಟು Audio
[Idu eṣṭu]
can I help you?
[interrogative modal verb]
ನಾನು ನಿಮಗೆ ಸಹಾಯ ಮಾಡಬಹುದೇ Audio
[Nānu nimage sahāya māḍabahudē]
what is your name?
[interrogative preposition]
ನಿಮ್ಮ ಹೆಸರೇನು Audio
[Nim'ma hesarēnu]

Adverbs in Kannada

It's time to learn the adverbs in Kannada. But what is an adverb? In general, adverbs modify verbs and adjectives. For example: You speak fast. The adverb is [fast] because it describes the verb and answers the question how do you speak?. Here is a list of the most common ones:

Adverbs
Kannada
Pronunciation
now
ಈಗ
[Īga] Audio
yesterday
ನಿನ್ನೆ  
[Ninne] Audio
today
ಇಲ್ಲಿ
[Illi] Audio
tonight
ಈ ರಾತ್ರಿ
[Ī rātri] Audio
tomorrow
ನಾಳೆ
[Nāḷe] Audio
soon
ಶೀಘ್ರ
[Śīghra] Audio
quickly
ತಕ್ಷಣ
[Takṣaṇa] Audio
slowly
ಮೆಲ್ಲಗೆ
[Mellage] Audio
together
ಜೊತೆಯಾಗಿ
[Joteyāgi] Audio
very
ತುಂಬಾ
[Tumbā] Audio
almost
ಪೂರ
[Pūra] Audio
always
ಯಾವಾಗಲು
[Yāvāgalu] Audio
usually
ಸಾಮಾನ್ಯವಾಗಿ
[Sāmān'yavāgi] Audio
sometimes
ಯಾವಾಗಲಾದರು
[Yāvāgalādaru] Audio
rarely
ತಾತ್ಕಾಲಿಕ
[Tātkālika] Audio
never
ಸಾದ್ಯವಿಲ್ಲ
[Sādyavilla] Audio

The following examples use the adverbs in different ways and places to demonstrate how it behaves in a sentence.

Adverbs + Rules
Kannada + Pronunciation
do you understand me now?
[pronoun + adverb]
ನಿಮಗೆ ಈಗಲಾದರು ಅರ್ಥವಾಗುತ್ತಿದೆಯೇ ? Audio
[Nimage īgalādaru arthavāguttideyē?]
I need help immediately
[noun + adverb]
ನನಗೆ ತಕ್ಷಣ ಸಹಾಯ ಅಗತ್ಯವಿದೆ Audio
[Nanage takṣaṇa sahāya agatyavide]
she is very intelligent
[adverb + adjective]
ಅವಳು ಬಹಳ ಬುದ್ಧಿವಂತೆ Audio
[Avaḷu bahaḷa bud'dhivante]
I will always love you
[verb + adverb]
ನಾನು ಯಾವಾಗಲೂ ನಿಮ್ಮನ್ನು ಪ್ರೀತಿಸುತ್ತೇನೆ Audio
[Nānu yāvāgalū nim'mannu prītisuttēne]
can we learn German together?
[adverb in a question]
ನಾವು ಜರ್ಮನ್ ಭಾಷೆಯನ್ನು ಕಲಿಯೋನವೇ Audio
[Nāvu jarman bhāṣeyannu kaliyōnavē]

Pronouns in Kannada

We're almost done! This time we will learn the pronouns in Kannada. In general, a pronoun can be used instead of a noun. For example instead of saying my teacher speaks 3 languages, you can use the pronoun he, and say he speaks 3 languages. Here is a list of the most common ones:

Personal Pronouns
Kannada
Pronunciation
I
ನಾನು
[Nānu] Audio
you
ನೀನು
[Nīnu] Audio
he
ಅವನು
[Avanu] Audio
she
ಅವಳು
[Avaḷu] Audio
we
ನೀವು
[Nīvu] Audio
they
ಅವರು
[Avaru] Audio

Object Pronouns
Kannada
Pronunciation
me
ನನ್ನ, ನನಗೆ
[Nanna, nanage] Audio
you
ನಿನ್ನ , ನಿನಗೆ
[Ninna, ninage] Audio
him
ಅವನಿಗೆ
[Avanige] Audio
her
ಅವಳಿಗೆ
[Avaḷige] Audio
us
ನಮಗೆ
[Namage] Audio
them
ಅವರಿಗೆ
[Avarige] Audio

Possessive Pronouns
Kannada
Pronunciation
my
ನನ್ನ
[Nanna] Audio
your
ನಿನ್ನ
[Ninna] Audio
his
ಅವನ
[Avana] Audio
her
ಅವಳ
[Avaḷa] Audio
our
ನಮ್ಮ
[Nam'ma] Audio
their
ಅವರ
[Avara] Audio

I think it's better to put the above example in a sentence to better assist you. The following examples use pronouns in different ways and places to demonstrate how they behave in a sentence. We will start with the personal pronouns.

Personal Pronouns
Kannada + Pronunciation
I am your friend
[1st pronoun + verb]
ನಾನು ನಿಮ್ಮ ಸ್ನೇಹಿತ Audio
[Nānu nim'ma snēhita]
you speak very fast
[2nd pronoun + adverb]
ನೀವು ಅತ್ಯಂತ ವೇಗವಾಗಿ ಮಾತನಾಡುತ್ತಾರೆ Audio
[Nīvu atyanta vēgavāgi mātanāḍuttāre]
he has three dogs
[3rd pronoun + verb]
ಅವನ ಬಳಿ ಮೂರು ನಾಯಿಗಳಿವೆ Audio
[Avana baḷi mūru nāyigaḷive]
she can speak German
[3rd pronoun + verb]
ಅವಳು ಜರ್ಮನ್ನ್ನಲ್ಲಿ ಮಾತನಾಡಬಲ್ಲಳು , Audio
[Avaḷu jarmannnalli mātanāḍaballaḷu,]
we will not come late
[1st plural pronoun]
ನಾವು ಕೊನೆಯಲ್ಲಿ ಬರುವುದಿಲ್ಲ Audio
[Nāvu koneyalli baruvudilla]
they bought milk and bread
[3rd plural pronoun]
ಅವರು ಹಾಲು ಮತ್ತು ಬ್ರೆಡ್ ಖರೀದಿಸಿದರು Audio
[Avaru hālu mattu breḍ kharīdisidaru]

The object pronoun is used as a target by a verb, and usually come after that verb. For example: I gave him my book. The object pronoun here is him. Here are more examples:

Object Pronouns
Kannada + Pronunciation
can you tell me your name?
[1st object pronoun]
ನೀವು ನನಗೆ ನಿಮ್ಮ ಹೆಸರು ಹೇಳುವಿರಾ? Audio
[Nīvu nanage nim'ma hesaru hēḷuvirā?]
I will give you money
[2nd object pronoun]
ನಾನು ನಿಮಗೆ ಹಣ ನೀಡುತ್ತೇನೆ Audio
[Nānu nimage haṇa nīḍuttēne]
she wrote him a letter
[3rd object pronoun]
ಅವಳು ಅವನಿಗೆ ಪತ್ರ ಬರೆದಳು Audio
[Avaḷu avanige patra baredaḷu]
they visited her yesterday
[3rd object pronoun]
ಅವರು ನಿನ್ನೆ ಅವಳನ್ನು ಭೇಟಿ ಮಾಡಿದರು Audio
[Avaru ninne avaḷannu bhēṭi māḍidaru]
can she help us?
[1st pl. object pronoun]
ಅವಳು ನಮಗೆ ಸಹಾಯ ಮಾಡಬಹುದೇ ? Audio
[Avaḷu namage sahāya māḍabahudē?]
he gave them food
[3rd pl. object pronoun]
ಅವನು ಅವರಿಗೆ ಆಹಾರ ಕೊಟ್ಟನು Audio
[Avanu avarige āhāra koṭṭanu]

Possessive Pronouns
Kannada + Pronunciation
my name is Maya
[1st possessive pronoun]
ನನ್ನ ಹೆಸರು ಮಾಯಾ Audio
[Nanna hesaru māyā]
your brother lives here
[2nd possessive pronoun]
ನಿಮ್ಮ ಸಹೋದರ ಇಲ್ಲಿ ವಾಸಿಸುವನು Audio
[Nim'ma sahōdara illi vāsisuvanu]
her mother cooks for us
[3rd possessive pronoun]
ಅವಳ ತಾಯಿ ನಮಗಾಗಿ ಅಡಿಗೆ ಮಾಡಿದಳು Audio
[Avaḷa tāyi namagāgi aḍige māḍidaḷu]
his hobby is reading books
[3rd possessive pronoun]
ಅವನ ಹವ್ಯಾಸ ಓದುವುದು Audio
[Avana havyāsa ōduvudu]
our dream is to visit Paris
[1st pl. possessive pronoun]
ನಮ್ಮ ಕನಸು ಪ್ಯಾರಿಸ್ ಭೇಟಿ ಮಾಡುವುದು Audio
[Nam'ma kanasu pyāris bhēṭi māḍuvudu]
their house is not far
[3rd pl. possessive pronoun]
ಅವರ ಮನೆ ದೂರವಿಲ್ಲ Audio
[Avara mane dūravilla]

One more thing you need to know is the demonstrative pronouns. They're very easy to learn.

Demonstrative Pronouns
Kannada
Pronunciation
this is my house
ಇದು ನನ್ನ ಮನೆ
[Idu nanna mane] Audio
that restaurant is far
ಆ ರೆಸ್ಟೋರೆಂಟ್ ತುಂಬಾ ದೂರ
[Ā resṭōreṇṭ tumbā dūra] Audio
these apples are delicious
ಈ ಸೇಬುಗಳು ರುಚಿಯಾಗಿವೆ
[Ī sēbugaḷu ruciyāgive] Audio
those stars are shiny
ಆ ನಕ್ಷತ್ರಗಳು ಹೊಳೆಯುತ್ತಿವೆ
[Ā nakṣatragaḷu hoḷeyuttive] Audio

I hope you learned a lot about the Kannada grammar in this lesson. If you have any question about this lesson please contact me here. The next lesson is below, have fun!

Kannada Phrases   Kannada Phrases

Kannada Vocabulary   Kannada Vocabulary



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Inspirational Quote: First say to yourself what you would be; and then do what you have to do. Epictetus