Hindi Grammar

Welcome to the 8th lesson about Hindi grammar. We will first learn about prepositions, negation, questions, adverbs, and pronouns including: personal, object and possessive pronouns. To hear the pronunciation, just click on the sound icon.

We will start with prepositions. In general, they are used to link words to other words. For example: I speak Hindi and English the preposition is [and] because it connects both words Hindi and English. The following is a list of the most used prepositions in Hindi.

Prepositions
Hindi
Pronunciation
and
[] Audio
above
ऊपर
[oopr] Audio
under
अधीन
[adhin] Audio
before
से पहले
[se phle] Audio
after
के बाद
[ke baad] Audio
in front of
के सामने
[ke saamne] Audio
behind
के पीछे
[ke piche] Audio
far from
दूर
[dur] Audio
near
निकट
[nikt] Audio
in
में
[men] Audio
inside
अंदर
[andr] Audio
outside
बाहर
[baahr] Audio
with
साथ
[saath] Audio
without
बिना
[binaa] Audio
about
के बारे में
[ke baare men] Audio
between
के बीच
[ke bik] Audio
but
परन्तु
[prntu] Audio
for
के लिए
[ke lie] Audio
from
से
[se] Audio
to
से
[se] Audio

Preposition Grammar Rules

The following examples use prepositions in different ways and places to demonstrate how they behave in a sentence.

Prepositions + Rules
Hindi + Pronunciation
I eat without a knife
[preposition + noun]
मैं एक चाकू के बिना खाता हूँ | Audio
[main ek kaaku ke binaa khaataa hun |]
she lives near the church
[verb + preposition]
वह गिरिजाघर के पास रहती है | Audio
[vh gairijaaghr ke paas rhti hai |]
he is taller than her
[adjective + preposition]
वह उसकी तुलना में लंबा है | Audio
[vh uski tulnaa men lnbaa hai |]
he came with his small dog
[preposition + pronoun]
वह अपने छोटे कुत्ते के साथ आया | Audio
[vh apne chote kutte ke saath aayaa |]
can you come with me?
[preposition + pronoun]
क्या तुम/आप (respect) मेरे साथ चलोगे(m)/ चलोगी(f)? Audio
[kyaa tum/aap (respect) mere saath klogae(m)/ klogai(f)?]

Negation in Hindi

Now let's learn how to make a negative sentence (negation). For example: Saying no, I can't, I don't ... The following examples use negation in different ways and places to demonstrate how they behave in a sentence.

Negation + Rules
Hindi + Pronunciation
I understand you
[affirmative form]
"मैं तुम्हें समझता/समझती हूँ |" Audio
["main tumhen smjhtaa/smjhti hun |"]
I don't understand you
[negation + verb]
मैं तुम्हें नहीं समझता हूँ | Audio
[main tumhen nhin smjhtaa hun |]
this is not the correct word
[negation + adjective]
यह सही शब्द नहीं है | Audio
[yh shi shbd nhin hai |]
don't leave me
[imperative negation]
मुझे मत छोड़ो | Audio
[mujhe mt chodeo |]
no problem
[negation + noun]
कोई समस्या नहीं Audio
[koi smsyaa nhin]

Negative Sentences
Hindi + Pronunciation
I don't speak French
[negation + present tense]
मैं फ्रेंच बात नहीं करता हूँ | Audio
[main frenk baat nhin krtaa hun |]
she didn't visit Germany
[negation + past tense]
उसने जर्मनी की यात्रा नहीं की | Audio
[usne jrmni ki yaatraa nhin ki |]
he cannot see us
[negative modal verb]
वह हमें नहीं देख सकता है | Audio
[vh hmen nhin dekh sktaa hai |]
can't she play chess?
[interrogative negation]
क्या वह शतरंज नहीं खेल सकती हैं? Audio
[kyaa vh shtrnj nhin khel skti hain?]
we will not come late
[negation + future tense]
हमें देर से नहीं आयेंगे | Audio
[hmen der se nhin aayengae |]

Questions in Hindi

Now let's learn how to ask questions (interrogative). Such as: what, why, can you ...? Here are some common examples:

English
Hindi
Pronunciation
how?
कैसे?
[kaise?] Audio
what?
क्या?
[kyaa?] Audio
who?
कौन?
[kaun?] Audio
why?
क्यों?
[kyon?] Audio
where?
कहाँ?
[khaan?] Audio

More of the interrogative form, now in a sentence:

Questions + Rules
Hindi + Pronunciation
where do you live?
[interrogative + verb]
तुम कहाँ रहते हो? Audio
[tum khaan rhte ho?]
does she speak Chinese?
[interrogative verb]
क्या वह चीनी बोल नहीं सकती हैं? Audio
[kyaa vh kini bol nhin skti hain?]
how much is this?
[interrogative preposition]
यह कितने का है ? Audio
[yh kitne kaa hai ?]
can I help you?
[interrogative modal verb]
क्या मैं तुम्हारी सहायता कर सकता हूँ ? Audio
[kyaa main tumhaari shaaytaa kr sktaa hun ? ]
what is your name?
[interrogative preposition]
तुम्हारा नाम क्या है? Audio
[tumhaaraa naam kyaa hai?]

Adverbs in Hindi

It's time to learn the adverbs in Hindi. But what is an adverb? In general, adverbs modify verbs and adjectives. For example: You speak fast. The adverb is [fast] because it describes the verb and answers the question how do you speak?. Here is a list of the most common ones:

Adverbs
Hindi
Pronunciation
now
अब
[ab] Audio
yesterday
बीता हुआ कल
[bitaa huaa kl] Audio
today
आज
[aaj] Audio
tonight
आज रात
[aaj raat] Audio
tomorrow
आने वाला कल
[aane vaalaa kl] Audio
soon
जल्दी
[jldi] Audio
quickly
जल्दी से
[jldi se] Audio
slowly
धीरे से
[dhire se] Audio
together
एक साथ
[ek saath] Audio
very
बहुत
[bhut] Audio
almost
लगभग
[lgabhga] Audio
always
हमेशा, सदैव, सदा
[hmeshaa, sdaiv, sdaa] Audio
usually
आमतौर पर
[aamtaur pr] Audio
sometimes
कभी-कभी
[kbhi-kbhi] Audio
rarely
शायद ही कभी
[shaayd hi kbhi] Audio
never
कभी नहीं
[kbhi nhin] Audio

The following examples use the adverbs in different ways and places to demonstrate how it behaves in a sentence.

Adverbs + Rules
Hindi + Pronunciation
do you understand me now?
[pronoun + adverb]
क्या अब तुम मुझे समझते हो ? Audio
[kyaa ab tum mujhe smjhte ho ?]
I need help immediately
[noun + adverb]
मुझे तुरंत मदद की ज़रूरत है | Audio
[mujhe turnt mdd ki jerurt hai |]
she is very intelligent
[adverb + adjective]
वह बहुत बुद्धिमान है | Audio
[vh bhut buddhimaan hai |]
I will always love you
[verb + adverb]
मैं तुम्हें हमेशा प्यार करूँगा | Audio
[main tumhen hmeshaa pyaar krungaaa |]
can we learn German together?
[adverb in a question]
क्या हम साथ जर्मन भाषा सीख सकते हैं? Audio
[kyaa hm saath jrmn bhaasaa sikh skte hain?]

Pronouns in Hindi

We're almost done! This time we will learn the pronouns in Hindi. In general, a pronoun can be used instead of a noun. For example instead of saying my teacher speaks 3 languages, you can use the pronoun he, and say he speaks 3 languages. Here is a list of the most common ones:

Personal Pronouns
Hindi
Pronunciation
I
मैं
[main] Audio
you
आप, तुम
[aap, tum] Audio
he
वह
[vh] Audio
she
वह
[vh] Audio
we
हम
[hm] Audio
they
वे
[ve] Audio

Object Pronouns
Hindi
Pronunciation
me
मुझे
[mujhe] Audio
you
आप, तुम
[aap, tum] Audio
him
उसे
[use] Audio
her
उसे
[use] Audio
us
हमें, हम को
[hmen, hm ko] Audio
them
उनको 
[unko] Audio

Possessive Pronouns
Hindi
Pronunciation
my
मेरा (m) मेरी (f)
[meraa (m) meri (f)] Audio
your
तुम्हारा
[tumhaaraa] Audio
his
उसका
[uskaa] Audio
her
उसकी
[uski] Audio
our
हमारा
[hmaaraa] Audio
their
उनका
[unkaa] Audio

I think it's better to put the above example in a sentence to better assist you. The following examples use pronouns in different ways and places to demonstrate how they behave in a sentence. We will start with the personal pronouns.

Personal Pronouns
Hindi + Pronunciation
I am your friend
[1st pronoun + verb]
मैं तुम्हारा दोस्त हूँ | Audio
[main tumhaaraa dost hun |]
you speak very fast
[2nd pronoun + adverb]
तुम बहुत तेजी से बोलते हो | Audio
[tum bhut teji se bolte ho |]
he has three dogs
[3rd pronoun + verb]
उसके पास तीन कुत्ते हैं | Audio
[uske paas tin kutte hain |]
she can speak German
[3rd pronoun + verb]
वह जर्मन (भाषा ) बात कर सकती है | Audio
[vh jrmn (bhaasaa ) baat kr skti hai |]
we will not come late
[1st plural pronoun]
हमें देर नहीं से नहीं आयेंगे | Audio
[hmen der nhin se nhin aayengae |]
they bought milk and bread
[3rd plural pronoun]
वे दूध और रोटी खरीदे | Audio
[ve dudh aur roti khride |]

The object pronoun is used as a target by a verb, and usually come after that verb. For example: I gave him my book. The object pronoun here is him. Here are more examples:

Object Pronouns
Hindi + Pronunciation
can you tell me your name?
[1st object pronoun]
क्या तुम मुझे अपना नाम बता सकते हो ? Audio
[kyaa tum mujhe apnaa naam btaa skte ho ?]
I will give you money
[2nd object pronoun]
मैं तुम्हें पैसे दे दूंगा | Audio
[main tumhen paise de dungaaa |]
she wrote him a letter
[3rd object pronoun]
उसने उसे एक पत्र लिखा | Audio
[usne use ek ptr likhaa |]
they visited her yesterday
[3rd object pronoun]
उन्होंने कल उसका दौरा किया | Audio
[unhonne kl uskaa dauraa kiyaa |]
can she help us?
[1st pl. object pronoun]
क्या वह हमारी मदद कर सकती है |? Audio
[kyaa vh hmaari mdd kr skti hai |?]
he gave them food
[3rd pl. object pronoun]
उसने उन्हें खाना दिया | Audio
[usne unhen khaanaa diyaa |]

Possessive Pronouns
Hindi + Pronunciation
my name is Maya
[1st possessive pronoun]
मेरा नाम माया है | Audio
[meraa naam maayaa hai |]
your brother lives here
[2nd possessive pronoun]
आपका भाई यहाँ रहता है | Audio
[aapkaa bhaai yhaan rhtaa hai |]
her mother cooks for us
[3rd possessive pronoun]
उसकी माँ हमारे लिए खाना पकाती /बनाती है | Audio
[uski maan hmaare lie khaanaa pkaati /bnaati hai |]
his hobby is reading books
[3rd possessive pronoun]
उसका शौक किताबें पढ़ना है | Audio
[uskaa shauk kitaaben pdhenaa hai |]
our dream is to visit Paris
[1st pl. possessive pronoun]
हमारा सपना पेरिस की यात्रा करना है | Audio
[hmaaraa spnaa peris ki yaatraa krnaa hai |]
their house is not far
[3rd pl. possessive pronoun]
उनका घर दूर नहीं है | Audio
[unkaa ghr dur nhin hai |]

One more thing you need to know is the demonstrative pronouns. They're very easy to learn.

Demonstrative Pronouns
Hindi
Pronunciation
this is my house
यह मेरा घर है |
[yh meraa ghr hai |] Audio
that restaurant is far
यह रेस्तरां दूर है |
[yh restraan dur hai |] Audio
these apples are delicious
ये सेब स्वादिष्ट होते हैं |
[ye seb svaadist hote hain |] Audio
those stars are shiny
वे तारें चमकीले हैं |
[ve taaren kmkile hain |] Audio

I hope you learned a lot about the Hindi grammar in this lesson. If you have any question about this lesson please contact me here. The next lesson is below, have fun!

Hindi Phrases   Hindi Phrases

Hindi Vocabulary   Hindi Vocabulary



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Inspirational Quote: First say to yourself what you would be; and then do what you have to do. Epictetus