Belarusian Grammar

Welcome to the 8th lesson about Belarusian grammar. We will first learn about prepositions, negation, questions, adverbs, and pronouns including: personal, object and possessive pronouns. To hear the pronunciation, just click on the sound icon.

We will start with prepositions. In general, they are used to link words to other words. For example: I speak Belarusian and English the preposition is [and] because it connects both words Belarusian and English. The following is a list of the most used prepositions in Belarusian.

Prepositions
Belarusian
Pronunciation
and
і; ды
[і; di] Audio
above
вышэй
[vishey] Audio
under
пад
[pad] Audio
before
раней
[ranyey] Audio
after
пасля
[paslya] Audio
in front of
спераду
[spyeradoo] Audio
behind
ззаду
[zzadoo] Audio
far from
далёка ад
[dalyoka ad] Audio
near
каля
[kalya] Audio
in
у
[oo] Audio
inside
унутры
[oonootri] Audio
outside
знадворку
[znadvorkoo] Audio
with
з
[z] Audio
without
без
[byez] Audio
about
аб
[ab] Audio
between
паміж
[pamіʐ] Audio
but
але
[alye] Audio
for
на працягу
[na pratzyaguoo] Audio
from
ад
[ad] Audio
to
у
[oo] Audio

Preposition Grammar Rules

The following examples use prepositions in different ways and places to demonstrate how they behave in a sentence.

Prepositions + Rules
Belarusian + Pronunciation
I eat without a knife
[preposition + noun]
я ем без нажа Audio
[ya yem byez naʐa]
she lives near the church
[verb + preposition]
яна жыве побач з царквой/ля паблізу царквы Audio
[yana ʐivye pobach z tzarkvoy/lya pablіzoo tzarkvi]
he is taller than her
[adjective + preposition]
ён вышэйшы за яе Audio
[yon visheyshi za yaye]
he came with his small dog
[preposition + pronoun]
ён прыйшоў са сваім маленькім сабачкам Audio
[yon priyshow sa svaіm malyenʲkіm sabachkam]
can you come with me?
[preposition + pronoun]
вы можаце пайсці са мной? Audio
[vi moʐatzye paystzі sa mnoy?]

Negation in Belarusian

Now let's learn how to make a negative sentence (negation). For example: Saying no, I can't, I don't ... The following examples use negation in different ways and places to demonstrate how they behave in a sentence.

Negation + Rules
Belarusian + Pronunciation
I understand you
[affirmative form]
я вас разумею Audio
[ya vas razoomyeyo]
I don't understand you
[negation + verb]
я вас не разумею Audio
[ya vas nye razoomyeyo]
this is not the correct word
[negation + adjective]
гэта неправільнае слова Audio
[gueta nyepravіlʲnaye slova]
don't leave me
[imperative negation]
не пакідай мяне Audio
[nye pakіday myanye]
no problem
[negation + noun]
няма праблем Audio
[nyama prablyem]

Negative Sentences
Belarusian + Pronunciation
I don't speak French
[negation + present tense]
я не размаўляю па-французску Audio
[ya nye razmawlyayo pa-frantzoozskoo]
she didn't visit Germany
[negation + past tense]
яна не наведвала нямеччыну Audio
[yana nye navyedvala nyamyechchinoo]
he cannot see us
[negative modal verb]
ён не можа бачыць нас Audio
[yon nye moʐa bachitzʲ nas]
can't she play chess?
[interrogative negation]
яна не можа гуляць у шахматы? Audio
[yana nye moʐa guoolyatzʲ oo shakhmati?]
we will not come late
[negation + future tense]
мы не прыйдзем позна Audio
[mi nye priydzyem pozna]

Questions in Belarusian

Now let's learn how to ask questions (interrogative). Such as: what, why, can you ...? Here are some common examples:

English
Belarusian
Pronunciation
how?
якім чынам?
[yakіm chinam?] Audio
what?
што?
[shto?] Audio
who?
хто?
[khto?] Audio
why?
чаму?
[chamoo?] Audio
where?
дзе?
[dzye?] Audio

More of the interrogative form, now in a sentence:

Questions + Rules
Belarusian + Pronunciation
where do you live?
[interrogative + verb]
дзе ты жывеш? Audio
[dzye ti ʐivyesh?]
does she speak Chinese?
[interrogative verb]
ці яна гаварыць па-кітайску? Audio
[tzі yana guavaritzʲ pa-kіtayskoo?]
how much is this?
[interrogative preposition]
колькі гэта каштуе? Audio
[kolʲkі gueta kashtooye?]
can I help you?
[interrogative modal verb]
(ці) я магу вам дапамагчы? Audio
[(tzі) ya maguoo vam dapamaguchi?]
what is your name?
[interrogative preposition]
як вас завуць? Audio
[yak vas zavootzʲ?]

Adverbs in Belarusian

It's time to learn the adverbs in Belarusian. But what is an adverb? In general, adverbs modify verbs and adjectives. For example: You speak fast. The adverb is [fast] because it describes the verb and answers the question how do you speak?. Here is a list of the most common ones:

Adverbs
Belarusian
Pronunciation
now
зараз, цяпер
[zaraz, tzyapyer] Audio
yesterday
учора
[oochora] Audio
today
сёння
[syonnya] Audio
tonight
сёння ўвечары
[syonnya wvyechari] Audio
tomorrow
заўтра
[zawtra] Audio
soon
хутка
[khootka] Audio
quickly
хутка
[khootka] Audio
slowly
павольна
[pavolʲna] Audio
together
разам
[razam] Audio
very
вельмі
[vyelʲmі] Audio
almost
амаль
[amalʲ] Audio
always
заўсёды
[zawsyodi] Audio
usually
звычайна
[zvichayna] Audio
sometimes
часам
[chasam] Audio
rarely
рэдка
[redka] Audio
never
ніколі
[nіkolі] Audio

The following examples use the adverbs in different ways and places to demonstrate how it behaves in a sentence.

Adverbs + Rules
Belarusian + Pronunciation
do you understand me now?
[pronoun + adverb]
ці вы разумееце мяне зараз? Audio
[tzі vi razoomyeyetzye myanye zaraz?]
I need help immediately
[noun + adverb]
мне неадкладна патрэбна дапамога Audio
[mnye nyeadkladna patrebna dapamogua]
she is very intelligent
[adverb + adjective]
яна вельмі разумная Audio
[yana vyelʲmі razoomnaya]
I will always love you
[verb + adverb]
я заўсёды буду кахаць/любіць цябе Audio
[ya zawsyodi boodoo kakhatzʲ/lyobіtzʲ tzyabye]
can we learn German together?
[adverb in a question]
(ці) мы можам вывучаць нямецкую мову разам? Audio
[(tzі) mi moʐam vivoochatzʲ nyamyetzkooyo movoo razam?]

Pronouns in Belarusian

We're almost done! This time we will learn the pronouns in Belarusian. In general, a pronoun can be used instead of a noun. For example instead of saying my teacher speaks 3 languages, you can use the pronoun he, and say he speaks 3 languages. Here is a list of the most common ones:

Personal Pronouns
Belarusian
Pronunciation
I
я
[ya] Audio
you
ты/вы/вы
[ti/vi/vi] Audio
he
ён
[yon] Audio
she
яна
[yana] Audio
we
мы
[mi] Audio
they
яны
[yani] Audio

Object Pronouns
Belarusian
Pronunciation
me
сябе, мне, мяне, я
[syabye, mnye, myanye, ya] Audio
you
ты/вы/вы
[ti/vi/vi] Audio
him
яго; яму
[yaguo; yamoo] Audio
her
яе; ёй
[yaye; yoy] Audio
us
нас/нам/намі; мы
[nas/nam/namі; mi] Audio
them
іх/ім/імі
[іkh/іm/іmі] Audio

Possessive Pronouns
Belarusian
Pronunciation
my
мой/мая/маё; мае
[moy/maya/mayo; maye] Audio
your
твой/твая/тваё/твае
[tvoy/tvaya/tvayo/tvaye] Audio
his
яго/ягоны
[yaguo/yaguoni] Audio
her
яе; ёй
[yaye; yoy] Audio
our
наш/нашая/нашае
[nash/nashaya/nashaye] Audio
their
іх/іхні
[іkh/іkhnі] Audio

I think it's better to put the above example in a sentence to better assist you. The following examples use pronouns in different ways and places to demonstrate how they behave in a sentence. We will start with the personal pronouns.

Personal Pronouns
Belarusian + Pronunciation
I am your friend
[1st pronoun + verb]
я твой сябар Audio
[ya tvoy syabar]
you speak very fast
[2nd pronoun + adverb]
вы (ты) размаўляеце(размаўляеш) вельмі хутка Audio
[vi (ti) razmawlyayetzye(razmawlyayesh) vyelʲmі khootka]
he has three dogs
[3rd pronoun + verb]
у яго ёсць тры сабакі Audio
[oo yaguo yostzʲ tri sabakі]
she can speak German
[3rd pronoun + verb]
яна можа гаварыць па-нямецку Audio
[yana moʐa guavaritzʲ pa-nyamyetzkoo]
we will not come late
[1st plural pronoun]
мы не прыйдзе позна Audio
[mi nye priydzye pozna]
they bought milk and bread
[3rd plural pronoun]
яны купілі малако і хлеб Audio
[yani koopіlі malako і khlyeb]

The object pronoun is used as a target by a verb, and usually come after that verb. For example: I gave him my book. The object pronoun here is him. Here are more examples:

Object Pronouns
Belarusian + Pronunciation
can you tell me your name?
[1st object pronoun]
ці вы можаце сказаць мне сваё імя? Audio
[tzі vi moʐatzye skazatzʲ mnye svayo іmya?]
I will give you money
[2nd object pronoun]
я дам вам грошай Audio
[ya dam vam guroshay]
she wrote him a letter
[3rd object pronoun]
яна напісала яму ліст Audio
[yana napіsala yamoo lіst]
they visited her yesterday
[3rd object pronoun]
яны наведалі яе ўчора Audio
[yani navyedalі yaye wchora]
can she help us?
[1st pl. object pronoun]
яна можа нам дапамагчы? Audio
[yana moʐa nam dapamaguchi?]
he gave them food
[3rd pl. object pronoun]
ён даў ім ежу Audio
[yon daw іm yeʐoo]

Possessive Pronouns
Belarusian + Pronunciation
my name is Maya
[1st possessive pronoun]
мяне завуць /маё імя майя Audio
[myanye zavootzʲ /mayo іmya mayya]
your brother lives here
[2nd possessive pronoun]
ваш брат жыве тут Audio
[vash brat ʐivye toot]
her mother cooks for us
[3rd possessive pronoun]
яе маці гатуе для нас Audio
[yaye matzі guatooye dlya nas]
his hobby is reading books
[3rd possessive pronoun]
яго хобі/захапленне чытанне кніг Audio
[yaguo khobі/zakhaplyennye chitannye knіgu]
our dream is to visit Paris
[1st pl. possessive pronoun]
наша мара наведаць у парыжы Audio
[nasha mara navyedatzʲ oo pariʐi]
their house is not far
[3rd pl. possessive pronoun]
іх дом знаходзіцца недалёка Audio
[іkh dom znakhodzіtztza nyedalyoka]

One more thing you need to know is the demonstrative pronouns. They're very easy to learn.

Demonstrative Pronouns
Belarusian
Pronunciation
this is my house
гэта мой дом
[gueta moy dom] Audio
that restaurant is far
гэты рэстаран далёка
[gueti restaran dalyoka] Audio
these apples are delicious
гэтыя яблыкі вельмі смачныя
[guetiya yablikі vyelʲmі smachniya] Audio
those stars are shiny
тыя зоркі бліскучыя
[tiya zorkі blіskoochiya] Audio

I hope you learned a lot about the Belarusian grammar in this lesson. If you have any question about this lesson please contact me here. The next lesson is below, have fun!

Belarusian Phrases   Belarusian Phrases

Belarusian Vocabulary   Belarusian Vocabulary



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Inspirational Quote: First say to yourself what you would be; and then do what you have to do. Epictetus