Polish Grammar

Welcome to the 8th lesson about Polish grammar. We will first learn about prepositions, negation, questions, adverbs, and pronouns including: personal, object and possessive pronouns.

We will start with prepositions. In general, they are used to link words to other words. For example: I speak Polish and English the preposition is [and] because it connects both words Polish and English. The following is a list of the most used prepositions in Polish.

Prepositions
Polish
and
i Audio
above
powyżej Audio
under
pod Audio
before
przed Audio
after
za/ po Audio
in front of
przed Audio
behind
za Audio
far from
z dala od Audio
near
blisko Audio
in
w Audio
inside
wewnątrz Audio
outside
na zewnątrz Audio
with
z Audio
without
bez Audio
about
o Audio
between
między Audio
but
ale Audio
for
dla Audio
from
z Audio
to
do Audio

Preposition Grammar Rules

The following examples use prepositions in different ways and places to demonstrate how they behave in a sentence.

Prepositions + Rules
Polish
I eat without a knife
[preposition + noun]
jem bez noża Audio
she lives near the church
[verb + preposition]
mieszka w pobliżu kościoła Audio
he is taller than her
[adjective + preposition]
jest on wyższy niż ona Audio
he came with his small dog
[preposition + pronoun]
przyszedł ze swoim małym psem Audio
can you come with me?
[preposition + pronoun]
możesz iść ze mną? Audio

Negation in Polish

Now let's learn how to make a negative sentence (negation). For example: Saying no, I can't, I don't ... The following examples use negation in different ways and places to demonstrate how they behave in a sentence.

Negation + Rules
Polish
I understand you
[affirmative form]
rozumiem cię Audio
I don't understand you
[negation + verb]
nie rozumiem ciebie Audio
this is not the correct word
[negation + adjective]
to nie jest odpowiednie słowo Audio
don't leave me
[imperative negation]
nie zostawiaj mnie Audio
no problem
[negation + noun]
nie ma problemu Audio

Negative Sentences
Polish
I don't speak French
[negation + present tense]
nie mówię po francusku Audio
she didn't visit Germany
[negation + past tense]
ona nie odwiedziła niemiec Audio
he cannot see us
[negative modal verb]
nie widzi nas Audio
can't she play chess?
[interrogative negation]
nie potrafi grać w szachy? Audio
we will not come late
[negation + future tense]
nie spóźnimy się Audio

Questions in Polish

Now let's learn how to ask questions (interrogative). Such as: what, why, can you ...? Here are some common examples:

English
Polish
how?
jak? Audio
what?
co? Audio
who?
kto? Audio
why?
dlaczego? Audio
where?
gdzie? Audio

More of the interrogative form, now in a sentence:

Questions + Rules
Polish
where do you live?
[interrogative + verb]
gdzie mieszkasz? Audio
does she speak Chinese?
[interrogative verb]
ona mówi po chińsku? Audio
how much is this?
[interrogative preposition]
ile to jest? Audio
can I help you?
[interrogative modal verb]
mogę pomóc? Audio
what is your name?
[interrogative preposition]
jak masz na imię? Audio

Adverbs in Polish

It's time to learn the adverbs in Polish. But what is an adverb? In general, adverbs modify verbs and adjectives. For example: You speak fast. The adverb is [fast] because it describes the verb and answers the question how do you speak?. Here is a list of the most common ones:

Adverbs
Polish
now
teraz Audio
yesterday
wczoraj Audio
today
dzisiaj Audio
tonight
dzisiaj wieczorem Audio
tomorrow
jutro Audio
soon
wkrótce Audio
quickly
szybko Audio
slowly
powoli Audio
together
razem Audio
very
bardzo Audio
almost
prawie Audio
always
zawsze Audio
usually
zwykle Audio
sometimes
czasami Audio
rarely
rzadko Audio
never
nigdy Audio

The following examples use the adverbs in different ways and places to demonstrate how it behaves in a sentence.

Adverbs + Rules
Polish
do you understand me now?
[pronoun + adverb]
rozumiesz mnie teraz? Audio
I need help immediately
[noun + adverb]
potrzebuję pomocy natychmiast Audio
she is very intelligent
[adverb + adjective]
ona jest bardzo inteligentna Audio
I will always love you
[verb + adverb]
zawsze będę cię kochał Audio
can we learn German together?
[adverb in a question]
czy możemy uczyć się razem niemieckiego? Audio

Pronouns in Polish

We're almost done! This time we will learn the pronouns in Polish. In general, a pronoun can be used instead of a noun. For example instead of saying my teacher speaks 3 languages, you can use the pronoun he, and say he speaks 3 languages. Here is a list of the most common ones:

Personal Pronouns
Polish
I
ja Audio
you
ty Audio
he
on Audio
she
ona Audio
we
my Audio
they
oni/ one Audio

depending on the context:
Object Pronouns
Polish
me
ja, mi, mnie Audio
you
ciebie, was, ty, wy, pan, pani, państwo Audio
him
jego, jemu, go, nim,on Audio
her
jej, nią, ona Audio
us
nas, my, nami, nam Audio
them
ich, nich, je, nie, nimi, oni, one Audio

Possessive Pronouns
Polish
my
mój Audio
your
twój Audio
his
jego Audio
her
jej Audio
our
nasz Audio
their
ich Audio

I think it's better to put the above example in a sentence to better assist you. The following examples use pronouns in different ways and places to demonstrate how they behave in a sentence. We will start with the personal pronouns.

Personal Pronouns
Polish
I am your friend
[1st pronoun + verb]
jestem twoim przyjacielem Audio
you speak very fast
[2nd pronoun + adverb]
mówisz bardzo szybko Audio
he has three dogs
[3rd pronoun + verb]
ma trzy psy Audio
she can speak German
[3rd pronoun + verb]
ona może mówić po niemiecku Audio
we will not come late
[1st plural pronoun]
nie spóźnimy się Audio
they bought milk and bread
[3rd plural pronoun]
kupili mleko i chleb Audio

The object pronoun is used as a target by a verb, and usually come after that verb. For example: I gave him my book. The object pronoun here is him. Here are more examples:

Object Pronouns
Polish
can you tell me your name?
[1st object pronoun]
możesz mi powiedzieć swoje imię? Audio
I will give you money
[2nd object pronoun]
dam ci pieniądze Audio
she wrote him a letter
[3rd object pronoun]
napisała do niego list Audio
they visited her yesterday
[3rd object pronoun]
odwiedzili ją wczoraj Audio
can she help us?
[1st pl. object pronoun]
ona może nam pomóc? Audio
he gave them food
[3rd pl. object pronoun]
dał im jedzenie Audio

Possessive Pronouns
Polish
my name is Maya
[1st possessive pronoun]
mam na imię maya Audio
your brother lives here
[2nd possessive pronoun]
twój brat tu mieszka Audio
her mother cooks for us
[3rd possessive pronoun]
jej matka gotuje dla nas Audio
his hobby is reading books
[3rd possessive pronoun]
jego hobby to czytanie książek Audio
our dream is to visit Paris
[1st pl. possessive pronoun]
naszym marzeniem jest wizyta w paryżu Audio
their house is not far
[3rd pl. possessive pronoun]
ich dom nie jest daleko Audio

One more thing you need to know is the demonstrative pronouns. They're very easy to learn.

Demonstrative Pronouns
Polish
this is my house
to jest mój dom Audio
that restaurant is far
ta restauracja jest daleko Audio
these apples are delicious
te jabłka są pyszne Audio
those stars are shiny
te gwiazdy są błyszczące Audio

I hope you learned a lot about the Polish grammar in this lesson. If you have any question about this lesson please contact me here. The next lesson is below, have fun!

Polish Phrases   Polish Phrases

Polish Vocabulary   Polish Vocabulary



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Inspirational Quote: First say to yourself what you would be; and then do what you have to do. Epictetus