Nepali Grammar

Welcome to the 8th lesson about Nepali grammar. We will first learn about prepositions, negation, questions, adverbs, and pronouns including: personal, object and possessive pronouns. To hear the pronunciation, just click on the sound icon.

We will start with prepositions. In general, they are used to link words to other words. For example: I speak Nepali and English the preposition is [and] because it connects both words Nepali and English. The following is a list of the most used prepositions in Nepali.

Prepositions
Nepali
Pronunciation
and
[ra] Audio
above
माथि
[māthi] Audio
under
तल
[tala] Audio
before
पहिला
[pahilā] Audio
after
पछि
[pachi] Audio
in front of
त्यसको अगाडि
[tyasakō agāḍi] Audio
behind
पछाडि
[pachāḍi] Audio
far from
टाढा
[ṭāḍhā] Audio
near
नजिक
[najika] Audio
in
मा
[mā] Audio
inside
भित्र
[bhitra] Audio
outside
बाहिरपट्टी
[bāhirapaṭṭī] Audio
with
सँग
[sam̐ga] Audio
without
बिना
[binā] Audio
about
करिब
[kariba] Audio
between
बिचमा
[bicamā] Audio
but
तर
[tara] Audio
for
लागि
[lāgi] Audio
from
बाट
[bāṭa] Audio
to
तिर
[tira] Audio

Preposition Grammar Rules

The following examples use prepositions in different ways and places to demonstrate how they behave in a sentence.

Prepositions + Rules
Nepali + Pronunciation
I eat without a knife
[preposition + noun]
म चक्कुबिना खान्छु Audio
[ma cakkubinā khānchu]
she lives near the church
[verb + preposition]
उनी चर्चनिर बस्छिन् Audio
[unī carcanira baschin]
he is taller than her
[adjective + preposition]
उ उनीभन्दा अग्ला छन् Audio
[u unībhandā aglā chan]
he came with his small dog
[preposition + pronoun]
उ आफ्नो सानो कुकुरलाई लिएर आए Audio
[u āphnō sānō kukuralā'ī li'ēra ā'ē]
can you come with me?
[preposition + pronoun]
के तपाईं मसंग आउन सक्नुहुन्छ ? Audio
[kē tapā'īṁ masaṅga ā'una saknuhuncha?]

Negation in Nepali

Now let's learn how to make a negative sentence (negation). For example: Saying no, I can't, I don't ... The following examples use negation in different ways and places to demonstrate how they behave in a sentence.

Negation + Rules
Nepali + Pronunciation
I understand you
[affirmative form]
म तपाईंलाई बुझ्छु Audio
[ma tapā'īnlā'ī bujhchu]
I don't understand you
[negation + verb]
म तपाईंलाई बुझ्दिन Audio
[ma tapā'īnlā'ī bujhdina]
this is not the correct word
[negation + adjective]
यो सहि शब्द होइन Audio
[yō sahi śabda hō'ina]
don't leave me
[imperative negation]
मलाई छोडेर नजानुहोस् Audio
[malā'ī chōḍēra najānuhōs]
no problem
[negation + noun]
केहि अप्ठारो छैन Audio
[kēhi apṭhārō chaina]

Negative Sentences
Nepali + Pronunciation
I don't speak French
[negation + present tense]
म फ्रेन्च बोल्दिन Audio
[ma phrēnca bōldina]
she didn't visit Germany
[negation + past tense]
उनी जर्मनी गएकी छैनिन् Audio
[unī jarmanī ga'ēkī chainin]
he cannot see us
[negative modal verb]
उसले हामीलाई देख्न सक्दैन Audio
[usalē hāmīlā'ī dēkhna sakdaina]
can't she play chess?
[interrogative negation]
उनले चेस खेल्न सक्दिनन् Audio
[unalē cēsa khēlna sakdinan]
we will not come late
[negation + future tense]
हामी ढिला आउने छैनौं Audio
[hāmī ḍhilā ā'unē chainauṁ]

Questions in Nepali

Now let's learn how to ask questions (interrogative). Such as: what, why, can you ...? Here are some common examples:

English
Nepali
Pronunciation
how?
कसरी ?
[kasarī?] Audio
what?
के ?
[kē?] Audio
who?
को ?
[kō?] Audio
why?
किन ?
[kina?] Audio
where?
कहाँ ?
[kahām̐?] Audio

More of the interrogative form, now in a sentence:

Questions + Rules
Nepali + Pronunciation
where do you live?
[interrogative + verb]
तपाईं कहाँ बस्नु हुन्छ ? Audio
[tapā'īṁ kahām̐ basnu huncha?]
does she speak Chinese?
[interrogative verb]
के उनी चाइनिज बोल्छिन् ? Audio
[kē unī cā'inija bōlchin?]
how much is this?
[interrogative preposition]
यो कति हो ? Audio
[yō kati hō?]
can I help you?
[interrogative modal verb]
के म तपाईंलाई सहयोग गर्न सक्छु ? Audio
[kē ma tapā'īnlā'ī sahayōga garna sakchu?]
what is your name?
[interrogative preposition]
तपाईंको नाम के हो ? Audio
[tapā'īṅkō nāma kē hō?]

Adverbs in Nepali

It's time to learn the adverbs in Nepali. But what is an adverb? In general, adverbs modify verbs and adjectives. For example: You speak fast. The adverb is [fast] because it describes the verb and answers the question how do you speak?. Here is a list of the most common ones:

Adverbs
Nepali
Pronunciation
now
अहिले
[ahilē] Audio
yesterday
हिजो
[hijō] Audio
today
आज
[āja] Audio
tonight
आजराती
[ājarātī] Audio
tomorrow
भोली
[bhōlī] Audio
soon
चाँडै
[cām̐ḍai] Audio
quickly
चाँडै
[cām̐ḍai] Audio
slowly
विस्तारै
[vistārai] Audio
together
एकसाथ
[ēkasātha] Audio
very
धेरै
[dhērai] Audio
almost
प्रायजसो
[prāyajasō] Audio
always
सँधै
[sam̐dhai] Audio
usually
समान्यतया
[samān'yatayā] Audio
sometimes
कहिलेकाहीँ
[kahilēkāhīm̐] Audio
rarely
आक्कल झुक्कल
[ākkala jhukkala] Audio
never
कदापी
[kadāpī] Audio

The following examples use the adverbs in different ways and places to demonstrate how it behaves in a sentence.

Adverbs + Rules
Nepali + Pronunciation
do you understand me now?
[pronoun + adverb]
तपाईंले अब मलाई बुझ्नु भयो ? Audio
[tapā'īnlē aba malā'ī bujhnu bhayō?]
I need help immediately
[noun + adverb]
मलाई तुरुन्त सहयोग चाहियो Audio
[malā'ī turunta sahayōga cāhiyō]
she is very intelligent
[adverb + adjective]
उनी सार्है बुद्धिमान छिन् Audio
[unī sār'hai bud'dhimāna chin]
I will always love you
[verb + adverb]
म तपाईंलाई सधैं माया गर्छु Audio
[ma tapā'īnlā'ī sadhaiṁ māyā garchu]
can we learn German together?
[adverb in a question]
के हामीसंगै जर्मन सिक्न सक्छौँ ? Audio
[kē hāmīsaṅgai jarmana sikna sakchaum̐?]

Pronouns in Nepali

We're almost done! This time we will learn the pronouns in Nepali. In general, a pronoun can be used instead of a noun. For example instead of saying my teacher speaks 3 languages, you can use the pronoun he, and say he speaks 3 languages. Here is a list of the most common ones:

Personal Pronouns
Nepali
Pronunciation
I
[ma] Audio
you
तिमी
[timī] Audio
he
[u] Audio
she
तिनी
[tinī] Audio
we
हामी
[hāmī] Audio
they
तिनीहरू
[tinīharū] Audio

Object Pronouns
Nepali
Pronunciation
me
[ma] Audio
you
तिमी
[timī] Audio
him
[u] Audio
her
उनको
[unakō] Audio
us
हामी
[hāmī] Audio
them
तिनीहरू
[tinīharū] Audio

Possessive Pronouns
Nepali
Pronunciation
my
मेरो
[mērō] Audio
your
तिम्रो
[timrō] Audio
his
उस्को
[uskō] Audio
her
तिनको
[tinakō] Audio
our
हाम्रो
[hāmrō] Audio
their
तिनीहरूको
[tinīharūkō] Audio

I think it's better to put the above example in a sentence to better assist you. The following examples use pronouns in different ways and places to demonstrate how they behave in a sentence. We will start with the personal pronouns.

Personal Pronouns
Nepali + Pronunciation
I am your friend
[1st pronoun + verb]
म तपाईंको साथी हो Audio
[ma tapā'īṅkō sāthī hō]
you speak very fast
[2nd pronoun + adverb]
तपाईं धेरै छिटो बोल्नु हुन्छ Audio
[tapā'īṁ dhērai chiṭō bōlnu huncha]
he has three dogs
[3rd pronoun + verb]
उसंग तीनवटा कुकुरहरु Audio
[usaṅga tīnavaṭā kukuraharu]
she can speak German
[3rd pronoun + verb]
उनी जर्मन बोल्छिन् Audio
[unī jarmana bōlchin]
we will not come late
[1st plural pronoun]
हामी ढिला आउनेछैनौँ Audio
[hāmī ḍhilā ā'unēchainaum̐]
they bought milk and bread
[3rd plural pronoun]
उनीहरुले दुध र पाउरोटी किने Audio
[unīharulē dudha ra pā'urōṭī kinē]

The object pronoun is used as a target by a verb, and usually come after that verb. For example: I gave him my book. The object pronoun here is him. Here are more examples:

Object Pronouns
Nepali + Pronunciation
can you tell me your name?
[1st object pronoun]
के तपाईं मलाई आफ्नो नाम भन्न सक्नु हुन्छ ? Audio
[kē tapā'īṁ malā'ī āphnō nāma bhanna saknu huncha?]
I will give you money
[2nd object pronoun]
म तपाईंलाई रुपियाँ दिन्छु Audio
[ma tapā'īnlā'ī rupiyām̐ dinchu]
she wrote him a letter
[3rd object pronoun]
उनले उसलाई पत्र लेखिन Audio
[unalē usalā'ī patra lēkhina]
they visited her yesterday
[3rd object pronoun]
उनीहरुले हिजो उनलाई भेटे Audio
[unīharulē hijō unalā'ī bhēṭē]
can she help us?
[1st pl. object pronoun]
के उनले हामीलाई सहयोग गर्न सक्छिन् ? Audio
[kē unalē hāmīlā'ī sahayōga garna sakchin?]
he gave them food
[3rd pl. object pronoun]
उसले उनीहरुलाई खाना दियो Audio
[usalē unīharulā'ī khānā diyō]

Possessive Pronouns
Nepali + Pronunciation
my name is Maya
[1st possessive pronoun]
मेरो नाम माया हो Audio
[mērō nāma māyā hō]
your brother lives here
[2nd possessive pronoun]
तपाईंको भाई/दाई यहाँ बस्नु हुन्छ Audio
[tapā'īṅkō bhā'ī / dā'ī yahām̐ basnu huncha]
her mother cooks for us
[3rd possessive pronoun]
उनको आमाले हाम्रो लागि पकाउनु हुन्छ Audio
[unakō āmālē hāmrō lāgi pakā'unu huncha]
his hobby is reading books
[3rd possessive pronoun]
उसको किताब पढ्ने रुची छ Audio
[usakō kitāba paḍhnē rucī cha]
our dream is to visit Paris
[1st pl. possessive pronoun]
हाम्रो सपना पेरिस घुम्ने छ Audio
[hāmrō sapanā pērisa ghumnē cha]
their house is not far
[3rd pl. possessive pronoun]
उनीहरुको घर त्यति टाढा छैन Audio
[unīharukō ghara tyati ṭāḍhā chaina]

One more thing you need to know is the demonstrative pronouns. They're very easy to learn.

Demonstrative Pronouns
Nepali
Pronunciation
this is my house
यो मेरो घर हो
[yō mērō ghara hō] Audio
that restaurant is far
त्यो भोजनालय टाढा छ
[tyō bhōjanālaya ṭāḍhā cha] Audio
these apples are delicious
यी स्याउहरु स्वादिष्ट छन्
[yī syā'uharu svādiṣṭa chan] Audio
those stars are shiny
ती ताराहरु चम्किला छन्
[tī tārāharu camkilā chan] Audio

I hope you learned a lot about the Nepali grammar in this lesson. If you have any question about this lesson please contact me here. The next lesson is below, have fun!

Nepali Phrases   Nepali Phrases

Nepali Vocabulary   Nepali Vocabulary



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Inspirational Quote: First say to yourself what you would be; and then do what you have to do. Epictetus