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Galician Grammar

Welcome to the 8th lesson about Galician grammar. We will first learn about prepositions, negation, questions, adverbs, and pronouns including: personal, object and possessive pronouns.

We will start with prepositions. In general, they are used to link words to other words. For example: I speak Galician and English the preposition is [and] because it connects both words Galician and English. The following is a list of the most used prepositions in Galician.

Prepositions - Galician
and e Audio
above arriba Audio
under abaixo Audio
before antes Audio
after despois Audio
in front of diante de Audio
behind atrás Audio
far from lonxe de Audio
near preto Audio
in en Audio
inside dentro Audio
outside fóra Audio
with con Audio
without sen Audio
about sobre Audio
between entre Audio
but pero Audio
for para Audio
from de Audio
to a Audio

Preposition Grammar Rules

The following examples use prepositions in different ways and places to demonstrate how they behave in a sentence.

Prepositions + Rules - Galician
I eat without a knife
[preposition + noun] eu como sen coitelo Audio
she lives near the church
[verb + preposition] ela vive preto da igrexa Audio
he is taller than her
[adjective + preposition] é máis alto que ela Audio
he came with his small dog
[preposition + pronoun] veu co seu can pequeno Audio
can you come with me?
[preposition + pronoun] pode vir comigo? Audio

Negation in Galician

Now let's learn how to make a negative sentence (negation). For example: Saying no, I can't, I don't ... The following examples use negation in different ways and places to demonstrate how they behave in a sentence.

Negation + Rules - Galician
I understand you
[affirmative form] enténdoo Audio
I don't understand you
[negation + verb] non o entendo Audio
this is not the correct word
[negation + adjective] esta non é a palabra correcta Audio
don't leave me
[imperative negation] non me deixe Audio
no problem
[negation + noun] ningún problema Audio

Negative Sentences - Galician
I don't speak French
[negation + present tense] eu non falo francés Audio
she didn't visit Germany
[negation + past tense] ela non visitou alemaña Audio
he cannot see us
[negative modal verb] non nos pode ver Audio
can't she play chess?
[interrogative negation] ela non sabe xogar ao xadrez? Audio
we will not come late
[negation + future tense] non imos chegar tarde Audio

Questions in Galician

Now let's learn how to ask questions (interrogative). Such as: what, why, can you ...? Here are some common examples:

English - Galician
how? como? Audio
what? o que? Audio
who? quen? Audio
why? por que? Audio
where? onde? Audio

More of the interrogative form, now in a sentence:

Questions + Rules - Galician
where do you live?
[interrogative + verb] onde vive vostede? Audio
does she speak Chinese?
[interrogative verb] ela fala chinés? Audio
how much is this?
[interrogative preposition] canto custa isto? Audio
can I help you?
[interrogative modal verb] podo axudar? Audio
what is your name?
[interrogative preposition] como se chama? Audio

Adverbs in Galician

It's time to learn the adverbs in Galician. But what is an adverb? In general, adverbs modify verbs and adjectives. For example: You speak fast. The adverb is [fast] because it describes the verb and answers the question how do you speak?. Here is a list of the most common ones:

Adverbs - Galician
now agora Audio
yesterday onte Audio
today hoxe Audio
tonight esta noite Audio
tomorrow mañá Audio
soon logo Audio
quickly rapidamente Audio
slowly lentamente Audio
together xuntos Audio
very moi Audio
almost case Audio
always sempre Audio
usually xeralmente Audio
sometimes ás veces Audio
rarely raramente Audio
never nunca Audio

The following examples use the adverbs in different ways and places to demonstrate how it behaves in a sentence.

Adverbs + Rules - Galician
do you understand me now?
[pronoun + adverb] enténdeme agora? Audio
I need help immediately
[noun + adverb] necesito axuda inmediatamente Audio
she is very intelligent
[adverb + adjective] ela é moi intelixente Audio
I will always love you
[verb + adverb] eu sempre te vou amar Audio
can we learn German together?
[adverb in a question] podemos aprender alemán xuntos? Audio

Pronouns in Galician

We're almost done! This time we will learn the pronouns in Galician. In general, a pronoun can be used instead of a noun. For example instead of saying my teacher speaks 3 languages, you can use the pronoun he, and say he speaks 3 languages. Here is a list of the most common ones:

Personal Pronouns - Galician
I eu Audio
you ti Audio
he el Audio
she ela Audio
we nós Audio
they eles Audio

Object Pronouns - Galician
me me Audio
you ti Audio
him a el Audio
her a ela Audio
us nos Audio
them os Audio

Possessive Pronouns - Galician
my meu Audio
your teu Audio
his seu Audio
her súa Audio
our noso Audio
their seus Audio

I think it's better to put the above example in a sentence to better assist you. The following examples use pronouns in different ways and places to demonstrate how they behave in a sentence. We will start with the personal pronouns.

Personal Pronouns - Galician
I am your friend
[1st pronoun + verb] eu son o seu amigo Audio
you speak very fast
[2nd pronoun + adverb] fala moi rápido Audio
he has three dogs
[3rd pronoun + verb] ten tres cans Audio
she can speak German
[3rd pronoun + verb] sabe falar alemán Audio
we will not come late
[1st plural pronoun] non imos chegar tarde Audio
they bought milk and bread
[3rd plural pronoun] eles mercaron leite e pan Audio

The object pronoun is used as a target by a verb, and usually come after that verb. For example: I gave him my book. The object pronoun here is him. Here are more examples:

Object Pronouns - Galician
can you tell me your name?
[1st object pronoun] pode dicirme o seu nome? Audio
I will give you money
[2nd object pronoun] vou darlle diñeiro Audio
she wrote him a letter
[3rd object pronoun] ela escribiulle unha carta Audio
they visited her yesterday
[3rd object pronoun] eles visitárona onte Audio
can she help us?
[1st pl. object pronoun] pode axudarnos? Audio
he gave them food
[3rd pl. object pronoun] deulles comida Audio

Possessive Pronouns - Galician
my name is Maya
[1st possessive pronoun] chámome maya Audio
your brother lives here
[2nd possessive pronoun] seu irmán vive aquí Audio
her mother cooks for us
[3rd possessive pronoun] súa nai cociña para nós Audio
his hobby is reading books
[3rd possessive pronoun] o seu hobby é ler libros Audio
our dream is to visit Paris
[1st pl. possessive pronoun] o noso soño é visitar parís Audio
their house is not far
[3rd pl. possessive pronoun] a súa casa non está lonxe Audio

One more thing you need to know is the demonstrative pronouns. They're very easy to learn.

Demonstrative Pronouns - Galician
this is my house esta é a miña casa Audio
that restaurant is far ese restaurante está lonxe Audio
these apples are delicious estas mazás son deliciosas Audio
those stars are shiny as estrelas son brillantes Audio

I hope you learned a lot about the Galician grammar in this lesson. Please check out our main menu here for more lessons: homepage. The next lesson is below, have fun!

Inspirational Quote: First say to yourself what you would be; and then do what you have to do. Epictetus

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