Afrikaans Grammar

Welcome to the 8th lesson about Afrikaans grammar. We will first learn about prepositions, negation, questions, adverbs, and pronouns including: personal, object and possessive pronouns.

We will start with prepositions. In general, they are used to link words to other words. For example: I speak Afrikaans and English the preposition is [and] because it connects both words Afrikaans and English. The following is a list of the most used prepositions in Afrikaans.

Prepositions
Afrikaans
and
en Audio
above
bo Audio
under
onder Audio
before
voordat Audio
after
na Audio
in front of
voor Audio
behind
agter Audio
far from
ver van Audio
near
naby Audio
in
In Audio
inside
binne Audio
outside
buite Audio
with
met Audio
without
sonder Audio
about
oor Audio
between
tussen Audio
but
maar Audio
for
vir Audio
from
van Audio
to
tot Audio

Preposition Grammar Rules

The following examples use prepositions in different ways and places to demonstrate how they behave in a sentence.

Prepositions + Rules
Afrikaans
I eat without a knife
[preposition + noun]
Ek eet sonder 'n mes Audio
she lives near the church
[verb + preposition]
Sy woon naby die kerk Audio
he is taller than her
[adjective + preposition]
Hy is langer as sy Audio
he came with his small dog
[preposition + pronoun]
Hy het saam met sy klein hondjie gekom Audio
can you come with me?
[preposition + pronoun]
Kan jy saam met my kom? Audio

Negation in Afrikaans

Now let's learn how to make a negative sentence (negation). For example: Saying no, I can't, I don't ... The following examples use negation in different ways and places to demonstrate how they behave in a sentence.

Negation + Rules
Afrikaans
I understand you
[affirmative form]
Ek verstaan jou Audio
I don't understand you
[negation + verb]
Ek verstaan ​​jou nie Audio
this is not the correct word
[negation + adjective]
Dit is nie die korrekte woord nie Audio
don't leave me
[imperative negation]
Moenie my alleen los nie Audio
no problem
[negation + noun]
geen probleem Audio

Negative Sentences
Afrikaans
I don't speak French
[negation + present tense]
Ek praat nie Frans nie Audio
she didn't visit Germany
[negation + past tense]
Sy het nie Duitsland besoek nie Audio
he cannot see us
[negative modal verb]
Hy kan ons nie sien nie Audio
can't she play chess?
[interrogative negation]
Kan sy nie skaak speel nie? Audio
we will not come late
[negation + future tense]
Ons sal nie laat kom nie Audio

Questions in Afrikaans

Now let's learn how to ask questions (interrogative). Such as: what, why, can you ...? Here are some common examples:

English
Afrikaans
how?
hoe? Audio
what?
wat? Audio
who?
wie? Audio
why?
hoekom? Audio
where?
waar? Audio

More of the interrogative form, now in a sentence:

Questions + Rules
Afrikaans
where do you live?
[interrogative + verb]
Waar woon jy? Audio
does she speak Chinese?
[interrogative verb]
Praat sy Chinees? Audio
how much is this?
[interrogative preposition]
Hoeveel kos dit? Audio
can I help you?
[interrogative modal verb]
Kan ek jou help? Audio
what is your name?
[interrogative preposition]
Wat is jou naam? Audio

Adverbs in Afrikaans

It's time to learn the adverbs in Afrikaans. But what is an adverb? In general, adverbs modify verbs and adjectives. For example: You speak fast. The adverb is [fast] because it describes the verb and answers the question how do you speak?. Here is a list of the most common ones:

Adverbs
Afrikaans
now
nou Audio
yesterday
gister Audio
today
vandag Audio
tonight
vanaand Audio
tomorrow
môre Audio
soon
binnekort Audio
quickly
vinnig Audio
slowly
stadig Audio
together
saam Audio
very
baie Audio
almost
byna Audio
always
altyd Audio
usually
gewoonlik Audio
sometimes
soms Audio
rarely
selde Audio
never
nooit Audio

The following examples use the adverbs in different ways and places to demonstrate how it behaves in a sentence.

Adverbs + Rules
Afrikaans
do you understand me now?
[pronoun + adverb]
Verstaan ​​jy my nou? Audio
I need help immediately
[noun + adverb]
Ek het dadelik hulp nodig Audio
she is very intelligent
[adverb + adjective]
Sy is baie intelligent Audio
I will always love you
[verb + adverb]
Ek sal altyd lief wees vir jou Audio
can we learn German together?
[adverb in a question]
Kan ons saam Duits leer? Audio

Pronouns in Afrikaans

We're almost done! This time we will learn the pronouns in Afrikaans. In general, a pronoun can be used instead of a noun. For example instead of saying my teacher speaks 3 languages, you can use the pronoun he, and say he speaks 3 languages. Here is a list of the most common ones:

Personal Pronouns
Afrikaans
I
Ek Audio
you
jy Audio
he
hy Audio
she
sy Audio
we
ons Audio
they
hulle Audio

Object Pronouns
Afrikaans
me
my Audio
you
jy Audio
him
hom Audio
her
haar Audio
us
ons Audio
them
hulle Audio

Possessive Pronouns
Afrikaans
my
my Audio
your
jou Audio
his
sy Audio
her
haar Audio
our
ons Audio
their
hul Audio

I think it's better to put the above example in a sentence to better assist you. The following examples use pronouns in different ways and places to demonstrate how they behave in a sentence. We will start with the personal pronouns.

Personal Pronouns
Afrikaans
I am your friend
[1st pronoun + verb]
Ek is jou vriend Audio
you speak very fast
[2nd pronoun + adverb]
Jy praat baie vinnig Audio
he has three dogs
[3rd pronoun + verb]
Hy het drie honde Audio
she can speak German
[3rd pronoun + verb]
Sy kan Duits praat Audio
we will not come late
[1st plural pronoun]
Ons sal nie laat kom nie Audio
they bought milk and bread
[3rd plural pronoun]
Hulle het melk en brood gekoop Audio

The object pronoun is used as a target by a verb, and usually come after that verb. For example: I gave him my book. The object pronoun here is him. Here are more examples:

Object Pronouns
Afrikaans
can you tell me your name?
[1st object pronoun]
Kan jy jou naam vir my gee? Audio
I will give you money
[2nd object pronoun]
Ek sal vir jou geld gee Audio
she wrote him a letter
[3rd object pronoun]
Sy het vir hom 'n brief geskryf Audio
they visited her yesterday
[3rd object pronoun]
Hulle het haar gister besoek Audio
can she help us?
[1st pl. object pronoun]
Kan sy ons help? Audio
he gave them food
[3rd pl. object pronoun]
Hy het vir hulle kos gegee Audio

Possessive Pronouns
Afrikaans
my name is Maya
[1st possessive pronoun]
My naam is Maya Audio
your brother lives here
[2nd possessive pronoun]
Jou broer woon hier Audio
her mother cooks for us
[3rd possessive pronoun]
Haar ma kook vir ons Audio
his hobby is reading books
[3rd possessive pronoun]
Sy stokperdjie is om boeke te lees Audio
our dream is to visit Paris
[1st pl. possessive pronoun]
Ons droom is om Parys te besoek Audio
their house is not far
[3rd pl. possessive pronoun]
Hulle huis is nie ver nie Audio

One more thing you need to know is the demonstrative pronouns. They're very easy to learn.

Demonstrative Pronouns
Afrikaans
this is my house
Dit is my huis Audio
that restaurant is far
Daardie restaurant is ver Audio
these apples are delicious
Hierdie appels is heerlik Audio
those stars are shiny
Daardie sterre is blink Audio

I hope you learned a lot about the Afrikaans grammar in this lesson. If you have any question about this lesson please contact me here. The next lesson is below, have fun!

Afrikaans Phrases   Afrikaans Phrases

Afrikaans Vocabulary   Afrikaans Vocabulary



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Inspirational Quote: First say to yourself what you would be; and then do what you have to do. Epictetus