Homepage ☰

Vocabulary 🔤

Numbers 🔢

Phrases 💬

Grammar 📘


Welsh Grammar

Welcome to the 8th lesson about Welsh grammar. We will first learn about prepositions, negation, questions, adverbs, and pronouns including: personal, object and possessive pronouns.

We will start with prepositions. In general, they are used to link words to other words. For example: I speak Welsh and English the preposition is [and] because it connects both words Welsh and English. The following is a list of the most used prepositions in Welsh.

Prepositions - Welsh
and a Audio
above uwch ben Audio
under dan Audio
before cyn Audio
after ar ôl Audio
in front of o flaen Audio
behind tu ôl i Audio
far from yn bell o Audio
near ger Audio
in yn Audio
inside tu mewn Audio
outside tu allan i Audio
with gyda Audio
without heb Audio
about am Audio
between rhwng Audio
but ond Audio
for am Audio
from o Audio
to i Audio

Preposition Grammar Rules

The following examples use prepositions in different ways and places to demonstrate how they behave in a sentence.

Prepositions + Rules - Welsh
I eat without a knife
[preposition + noun] dw i'n bwyta heb cyllell Audio
she lives near the church
[verb + preposition] mae hi'n byw ger yr eglwys Audio
he is taller than her
[adjective + preposition] mae e'n dalach na hi Audio
he came with his small dog
[preposition + pronoun] daeth e gyda'i gi bach Audio
can you come with me?
[preposition + pronoun] allwch chi ddod gyda mi? Audio

Negation in Welsh

Now let's learn how to make a negative sentence (negation). For example: Saying no, I can't, I don't ... The following examples use negation in different ways and places to demonstrate how they behave in a sentence.

Negation + Rules - Welsh
I understand you
[affirmative form] dw i'n eich deall chi Audio
I don't understand you
[negation + verb] dw i ddim yn eich deall chi Audio
this is not the correct word
[negation + adjective] nid y gair cywir yw hwn Audio
don't leave me
[imperative negation] peidiwch â fy ngadael i Audio
no problem
[negation + noun] dim problem Audio

Negative Sentences - Welsh
I don't speak French
[negation + present tense] dydw i ddim yn siarad ffrangeg Audio
she didn't visit Germany
[negation + past tense] wnaeth hi ddim ymweld â'r almaen Audio
he cannot see us
[negative modal verb] all e ddim ein gweld ni Audio
can't she play chess?
[interrogative negation] all hi ddim chwarae gwyddbwyll? Audio
we will not come late
[negation + future tense] fyddwn ni ddim yn dod yn hwyr Audio

Questions in Welsh

Now let's learn how to ask questions (interrogative). Such as: what, why, can you ...? Here are some common examples:

English - Welsh
how? sut? Audio
what? beth? Audio
who? pwy? Audio
why? pam? Audio
where? ble? Audio

More of the interrogative form, now in a sentence:

Questions + Rules - Welsh
where do you live?
[interrogative + verb] ble dych chi'n byw? Audio
does she speak Chinese?
[interrogative verb] ydy hi'n siarad tseinëeg? Audio
how much is this?
[interrogative preposition] faint yw hyn? Audio
can I help you?
[interrogative modal verb] alla i eich helpu chi? Audio
what is your name?
[interrogative preposition] beth yw eich enw? Audio

Adverbs in Welsh

It's time to learn the adverbs in Welsh. But what is an adverb? In general, adverbs modify verbs and adjectives. For example: You speak fast. The adverb is [fast] because it describes the verb and answers the question how do you speak?. Here is a list of the most common ones:

Adverbs - Welsh
now nawr Audio
yesterday ddoe Audio
today heddiw Audio
tonight heno Audio
tomorrow yfory Audio
soon yn fuan Audio
quickly yn gyflym Audio
slowly araf Audio
together gyda'i gilydd Audio
very iawn Audio
almost bron Audio
always bob amser Audio
usually fel arfer Audio
sometimes weithiau Audio
rarely yn anaml Audio
never byth Audio

The following examples use the adverbs in different ways and places to demonstrate how it behaves in a sentence.

Adverbs + Rules - Welsh
do you understand me now?
[pronoun + adverb] ydych chi'n fy neall i nawr? Audio
I need help immediately
[noun + adverb] mae angen cymorth arnaf ar unwaith Audio
she is very intelligent
[adverb + adjective] mae hi'n ddeallus iawn Audio
I will always love you
[verb + adverb] bydda' i bob amser yn caru chi Audio
can we learn German together?
[adverb in a question] allwn ni ddysgu almaeneg gyda'n gilydd? Audio

Pronouns in Welsh

We're almost done! This time we will learn the pronouns in Welsh. In general, a pronoun can be used instead of a noun. For example instead of saying my teacher speaks 3 languages, you can use the pronoun he, and say he speaks 3 languages. Here is a list of the most common ones:

Personal Pronouns - Welsh
I i Audio
you chi Audio
he ef Audio
she hi Audio
we ni Audio
they nhw Audio

Object Pronouns - Welsh
me fi Audio
you chi Audio
him ef Audio
her ei Audio
us ni Audio
them nhw Audio

Possessive Pronouns - Welsh
my fy Audio
your eich Audio
his ei Audio
her ei Audio
our ein Audio
their eu Audio

I think it's better to put the above example in a sentence to better assist you. The following examples use pronouns in different ways and places to demonstrate how they behave in a sentence. We will start with the personal pronouns.

Personal Pronouns - Welsh
I am your friend
[1st pronoun + verb] eich ffrind ydw i Audio
you speak very fast
[2nd pronoun + adverb] dych chi'n siarad yn gyflym iawn Audio
he has three dogs
[3rd pronoun + verb] mae gyda fe dri chi Audio
she can speak German
[3rd pronoun + verb] mae hi'n siarad almaeneg Audio
we will not come late
[1st plural pronoun] fdydwn ni ddim yn dod yn hwyr Audio
they bought milk and bread
[3rd plural pronoun] prynon nhw laeth a bara Audio

The object pronoun is used as a target by a verb, and usually come after that verb. For example: I gave him my book. The object pronoun here is him. Here are more examples:

Object Pronouns - Welsh
can you tell me your name?
[1st object pronoun] allwch chi ddweud eich enw wrtho'i? Audio
I will give you money
[2nd object pronoun] rhoia' i'r arian i chi Audio
she wrote him a letter
[3rd object pronoun] ysgrifennodd hi lythyr ato Audio
they visited her yesterday
[3rd object pronoun] ymwelon nhw â hi ddoe Audio
can she help us?
[1st pl. object pronoun] allwch chi ein helpu ni? Audio
he gave them food
[3rd pl. object pronoun] rhoddodd e fwyd iddyn nhw Audio

Possessive Pronouns - Welsh
my name is Maya
[1st possessive pronoun] fy enw i yw maya Audio
your brother lives here
[2nd possessive pronoun] mae eich brawd yn byw yma Audio
her mother cooks for us
[3rd possessive pronoun] mae ei mam yn coginio i ni Audio
his hobby is reading books
[3rd possessive pronoun] ei hobi yw darllen llyfrau Audio
our dream is to visit Paris
[1st pl. possessive pronoun] ein breuddwyd yw ymweld â pharis Audio
their house is not far
[3rd pl. possessive pronoun] dyw eu tŷ nhw ddim yn bell Audio

One more thing you need to know is the demonstrative pronouns. They're very easy to learn.

Demonstrative Pronouns - Welsh
this is my house hwn yw fy nhy i Audio
that restaurant is far mae'r bwyty'na yn bell Audio
these apples are delicious mae'r afalau'ma'n flasus Audio
those stars are shiny mae'r sêr'ma'n pefrio Audio

I hope you learned a lot about the Welsh grammar in this lesson. Please check out our main menu here for more lessons: homepage. The next lesson is below, have fun!

Inspirational Quote: First say to yourself what you would be; and then do what you have to do. Epictetus

Homepage ☰

Vocabulary 🔤

Numbers 🔢

Phrases 💬

Grammar 📘


Copyright © 2018 LEARN101.ORG.
All rights reserved.