Welsh Grammar

Welcome to the 8th lesson about Welsh grammar. We will first learn about prepositions, negation, questions, adverbs, and pronouns including: personal, object and possessive pronouns.

We will start with prepositions. In general, they are used to link words to other words. For example: I speak Welsh and English the preposition is [and] because it connects both words Welsh and English. The following is a list of the most used prepositions in Welsh.

Prepositions
Welsh
and
a Audio
above
uwch ben Audio
under
dan Audio
before
cyn Audio
after
ar ôl Audio
in front of
o flaen Audio
behind
tu ôl i Audio
far from
yn bell o Audio
near
ger Audio
in
yn Audio
inside
tu mewn Audio
outside
tu allan i Audio
with
gyda Audio
without
heb Audio
about
am Audio
between
rhwng Audio
but
ond Audio
for
am Audio
from
o Audio
to
i Audio

Preposition Grammar Rules

The following examples use prepositions in different ways and places to demonstrate how they behave in a sentence.

Prepositions + Rules
Welsh
I eat without a knife
[preposition + noun]
dw i'n bwyta heb cyllell Audio
she lives near the church
[verb + preposition]
mae hi'n byw ger yr eglwys Audio
he is taller than her
[adjective + preposition]
mae e'n dalach na hi Audio
he came with his small dog
[preposition + pronoun]
daeth e gyda'i gi bach Audio
can you come with me?
[preposition + pronoun]
allwch chi ddod gyda mi? Audio

Negation in Welsh

Now let's learn how to make a negative sentence (negation). For example: Saying no, I can't, I don't ... The following examples use negation in different ways and places to demonstrate how they behave in a sentence.

Negation + Rules
Welsh
I understand you
[affirmative form]
dw i'n eich deall chi Audio
I don't understand you
[negation + verb]
dw i ddim yn eich deall chi Audio
this is not the correct word
[negation + adjective]
nid y gair cywir yw hwn Audio
don't leave me
[imperative negation]
peidiwch â fy ngadael i Audio
no problem
[negation + noun]
dim problem Audio

Negative Sentences
Welsh
I don't speak French
[negation + present tense]
dydw i ddim yn siarad ffrangeg Audio
she didn't visit Germany
[negation + past tense]
wnaeth hi ddim ymweld â'r almaen Audio
he cannot see us
[negative modal verb]
all e ddim ein gweld ni Audio
can't she play chess?
[interrogative negation]
all hi ddim chwarae gwyddbwyll? Audio
we will not come late
[negation + future tense]
fyddwn ni ddim yn dod yn hwyr Audio

Questions in Welsh

Now let's learn how to ask questions (interrogative). Such as: what, why, can you ...? Here are some common examples:

English
Welsh
how?
sut? Audio
what?
beth? Audio
who?
pwy? Audio
why?
pam? Audio
where?
ble? Audio

More of the interrogative form, now in a sentence:

Questions + Rules
Welsh
where do you live?
[interrogative + verb]
ble dych chi'n byw? Audio
does she speak Chinese?
[interrogative verb]
ydy hi'n siarad tseinëeg? Audio
how much is this?
[interrogative preposition]
faint yw hyn? Audio
can I help you?
[interrogative modal verb]
alla i eich helpu chi? Audio
what is your name?
[interrogative preposition]
beth yw eich enw? Audio

Adverbs in Welsh

It's time to learn the adverbs in Welsh. But what is an adverb? In general, adverbs modify verbs and adjectives. For example: You speak fast. The adverb is [fast] because it describes the verb and answers the question how do you speak?. Here is a list of the most common ones:

Adverbs
Welsh
now
nawr Audio
yesterday
ddoe Audio
today
heddiw Audio
tonight
heno Audio
tomorrow
yfory Audio
soon
yn fuan Audio
quickly
yn gyflym Audio
slowly
araf Audio
together
gyda'i gilydd Audio
very
iawn Audio
almost
bron Audio
always
bob amser Audio
usually
fel arfer Audio
sometimes
weithiau Audio
rarely
yn anaml Audio
never
byth Audio

The following examples use the adverbs in different ways and places to demonstrate how it behaves in a sentence.

Adverbs + Rules
Welsh
do you understand me now?
[pronoun + adverb]
ydych chi'n fy neall i nawr? Audio
I need help immediately
[noun + adverb]
mae angen cymorth arnaf ar unwaith Audio
she is very intelligent
[adverb + adjective]
mae hi'n ddeallus iawn Audio
I will always love you
[verb + adverb]
bydda' i bob amser yn caru chi Audio
can we learn German together?
[adverb in a question]
allwn ni ddysgu almaeneg gyda'n gilydd? Audio

Pronouns in Welsh

We're almost done! This time we will learn the pronouns in Welsh. In general, a pronoun can be used instead of a noun. For example instead of saying my teacher speaks 3 languages, you can use the pronoun he, and say he speaks 3 languages. Here is a list of the most common ones:

Personal Pronouns
Welsh
I
i Audio
you
chi Audio
he
ef Audio
she
hi Audio
we
ni Audio
they
nhw Audio

Object Pronouns
Welsh
me
fi Audio
you
chi Audio
him
ef Audio
her
ei Audio
us
ni Audio
them
nhw Audio

Possessive Pronouns
Welsh
my
fy Audio
your
eich Audio
his
ei Audio
her
ei Audio
our
ein Audio
their
eu Audio

I think it's better to put the above example in a sentence to better assist you. The following examples use pronouns in different ways and places to demonstrate how they behave in a sentence. We will start with the personal pronouns.

Personal Pronouns
Welsh
I am your friend
[1st pronoun + verb]
eich ffrind ydw i Audio
you speak very fast
[2nd pronoun + adverb]
dych chi'n siarad yn gyflym iawn Audio
he has three dogs
[3rd pronoun + verb]
mae gyda fe dri chi Audio
she can speak German
[3rd pronoun + verb]
mae hi'n siarad almaeneg Audio
we will not come late
[1st plural pronoun]
fdydwn ni ddim yn dod yn hwyr Audio
they bought milk and bread
[3rd plural pronoun]
prynon nhw laeth a bara Audio

The object pronoun is used as a target by a verb, and usually come after that verb. For example: I gave him my book. The object pronoun here is him. Here are more examples:

Object Pronouns
Welsh
can you tell me your name?
[1st object pronoun]
allwch chi ddweud eich enw wrtho'i? Audio
I will give you money
[2nd object pronoun]
rhoia' i'r arian i chi Audio
she wrote him a letter
[3rd object pronoun]
ysgrifennodd hi lythyr ato Audio
they visited her yesterday
[3rd object pronoun]
ymwelon nhw â hi ddoe Audio
can she help us?
[1st pl. object pronoun]
allwch chi ein helpu ni? Audio
he gave them food
[3rd pl. object pronoun]
rhoddodd e fwyd iddyn nhw Audio

Possessive Pronouns
Welsh
my name is Maya
[1st possessive pronoun]
fy enw i yw maya Audio
your brother lives here
[2nd possessive pronoun]
mae eich brawd yn byw yma Audio
her mother cooks for us
[3rd possessive pronoun]
mae ei mam yn coginio i ni Audio
his hobby is reading books
[3rd possessive pronoun]
ei hobi yw darllen llyfrau Audio
our dream is to visit Paris
[1st pl. possessive pronoun]
ein breuddwyd yw ymweld â pharis Audio
their house is not far
[3rd pl. possessive pronoun]
dyw eu tŷ nhw ddim yn bell Audio

One more thing you need to know is the demonstrative pronouns. They're very easy to learn.

Demonstrative Pronouns
Welsh
this is my house
hwn yw fy nhy i Audio
that restaurant is far
mae'r bwyty'na yn bell Audio
these apples are delicious
mae'r afalau'ma'n flasus Audio
those stars are shiny
mae'r sêr'ma'n pefrio Audio

I hope you learned a lot about the Welsh grammar in this lesson. If you have any question about this lesson please contact me here. The next lesson is below, have fun!

Welsh Phrases   Welsh Phrases

Welsh Vocabulary   Welsh Vocabulary



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Inspirational Quote: First say to yourself what you would be; and then do what you have to do. Epictetus