Uyghur Grammar

Welcome to the 8th lesson about Uyghur grammar. We will first learn about prepositions, negation, questions, adverbs, and pronouns including: personal, object and possessive pronouns. To hear the pronunciation, just click on the sound icon.

We will start with prepositions. In general, they are used to link words to other words. For example: I speak Uyghur and English the preposition is [and] because it connects both words Uyghur and English. The following is a list of the most used prepositions in Uyghur.

Prepositions
Uyghur
Pronunciation
and
ۋە
[we]
above
يۇقۇردا
[yuqurda]
under
ئاستىدا
[astida]
before
بۇرۇن
[burun]
after
كېيىن
[këyin]
in front of
…نىڭ ئالدىدا
[…ning aldida]
behind
ئارقىسىدا
[arqisida]
far from
…دىن ئۇزاق
[…din uzaq]
near
يېقىن
[yëqin]
in
دا\تە
[da/te]
inside
ئىچىدە
[ichide]
outside
تېشىدا
[tëshida]
with
لىق\لىك ،بىلەن
[…/liq/lik ,bilen]
without
…سىز،ئالماي
[…siz,almay]
about
ئالاقىدار
[alaqidar]
between
ئارىسىدا
[arisida]
but
ئەمما
[emma]
for
ئۈچۈن
[üchün]
from
دىن\تىن
[...din/tin]
to
غا\قا\گە\كە
[…gha/qa/ge/ke]

Preposition Grammar Rules

The following examples use prepositions in different ways and places to demonstrate how they behave in a sentence.

Prepositions + Rules
Uyghur + Pronunciation
I eat without a knife
[preposition + noun]
مەن پىچاق ئىشلەتمەي يەيمەن
[men pichaq ishletmey yeymen]
she lives near the church
[verb + preposition]
ئۇ چىركاۋنىڭ يېنىدا ياشايادۇ(تۇرىدۇ)
[u chirkwaning yënida yashayadu(turidu)]
he is taller than her
[adjective + preposition]
ئۇ ئۇنىڭدىن ئىگىز
[u uningdin igiz]
he came with his small dog
[preposition + pronoun]
ئۇ كىچىك ئىتى بىلەن كەلدى
[u kichik iti bilen keldi]
can you come with me?
[preposition + pronoun]
مەن بىلەن كېلەمسىز؟
[men bilen këlemsiz?]

Negation in Uyghur

Now let's learn how to make a negative sentence (negation). For example: Saying no, I can't, I don't ... The following examples use negation in different ways and places to demonstrate how they behave in a sentence.

Negation + Rules
Uyghur + Pronunciation
I understand you
[affirmative form]
مەن سىنى چۈشىنىمەن
[men sini chüshinimen]
I don't understand you
[negation + verb]
مەن چۈشەنمىدىم
[men chüshenmidim]
this is not the correct word
[negation + adjective]
بۇ توغرا سۆز ئەمەس
[bu toghra söz emes]
don't leave me
[imperative negation]
مەندىن ئايرىلماڭ
[mendin ayrilmang]
no problem
[negation + noun]
چاتاق يوق
[chataq yoq]

Negative Sentences
Uyghur + Pronunciation
I don't speak French
[negation + present tense]
مەن فرانسۇزچە سۆزلىيەلمەيمەن
[men Fransuzche sözliyelmeymen]
she didn't visit Germany
[negation + past tense]
ئۇ گېرمانىيەنى زىيارەت قىلمىدى
[u Gërmaniyeni ziyaret qilmidi]
he cannot see us
[negative modal verb]
ئۇ بىزنى كۆرەلمەيدۇ
[u bizni körelmeydu]
can't she play chess?
[interrogative negation]
ئۇ شاھمات ئوينىيالمامدۇ؟
[u shahmat oyniyalmamdu?]
we will not come late
[negation + future tense]
بىز كېچىكىپ كەلمەيمىز
[biz këchikip kelmeymiz]

Questions in Uyghur

Now let's learn how to ask questions (interrogative). Such as: what, why, can you ...? Here are some common examples:

English
Uyghur
Pronunciation
how?
قانداق؟
[qandaq?]
what?
نېمە؟
[nëme?]
who?
كىم؟
[kim?]
why?
نېمە ئۈچۈن؟
[nëme üchün?]
where?
نەدە؟
[nede?]

More of the interrogative form, now in a sentence:

Questions + Rules
Uyghur + Pronunciation
where do you live?
[interrogative + verb]
نەدە ياشايسىز؟
[nede yashaysiz?]
does she speak Chinese?
[interrogative verb]
ئۇ خەنزۇچە سۆزلىيەلەمدۇ؟
[u Xenzuche sözliyelemdu?]
how much is this?
[interrogative preposition]
بۇ نەچچە پۇل؟
[bu nechche pul?]
can I help you?
[interrogative modal verb]
ياردەملىشەيمۇ؟
[yardemlisheymu?]
what is your name?
[interrogative preposition]
ئىسمىڭىز نېمە؟
[ismingiz nëme?]

Adverbs in Uyghur

It's time to learn the adverbs in Uyghur. But what is an adverb? In general, adverbs modify verbs and adjectives. For example: You speak fast. The adverb is [fast] because it describes the verb and answers the question how do you speak?. Here is a list of the most common ones:

Adverbs
Uyghur
Pronunciation
now
ھازىر
[hazir]
yesterday
تۈنۈگۈن
[tünügün]
today
بۈگۈن
[bügün]
tonight
كەچتە
[kechte]
tomorrow
ئەتە
[ete]
soon
پات يېقىندا
[pat yëqinda]
quickly
تېز
[tëz]
slowly
ئاستا
[asta]
together
بىرلىكتە
[birlikte]
very
بەك،ئىنتايىن
[bek,intayin]
almost
دېگۈدەك
[dëgüdek]
always
ھەر دائىم
[her daim]
usually
ئادەتتە
[adette]
sometimes
بەزىدە
[bezide]
rarely
كەمدىن كەم،ئاندا ساندا
[kemdin kem,anda sanda]
never
ئەسلا
[esla]

The following examples use the adverbs in different ways and places to demonstrate how it behaves in a sentence.

Adverbs + Rules
Uyghur + Pronunciation
do you understand me now?
[pronoun + adverb]
ئەمدى (سۆزۈمنى) چۈشەندىڭىزمۇ؟
[emdi (sözümni) chüshendingizmu?]
I need help immediately
[noun + adverb]
ماڭا دەرھال ياردەم كېرەك
[manga derhal yardem kërek]
she is very intelligent
[adverb + adjective]
ئۇ ئىنتايىن ئەقىللىق
[u intayin eqilliq]
I will always love you
[verb + adverb]
سىزنى ھەر دائىم سۆيىمەن
[sizni her daim söyimen]
can we learn German together?
[adverb in a question]
بىز نېمىسچىنى بىللە ئۆگەنسەك بولامدۇ؟
[biz Nëmischini bille ögensek bolamdu?]

Pronouns in Uyghur

We're almost done! This time we will learn the pronouns in Uyghur. In general, a pronoun can be used instead of a noun. For example instead of saying my teacher speaks 3 languages, you can use the pronoun he, and say he speaks 3 languages. Here is a list of the most common ones:

Personal Pronouns
Uyghur
Pronunciation
I
مەن
[men]
you
سىز،سەن
[siz,sen]
he
ئۇ
[u]
she
ئۇ
[u]
we
بىز
[biz]
they
ئۇلار
[ular]

Object Pronouns
Uyghur
Pronunciation
me
ماڭا،مېنى،مەندىن
[manga,mëni,mendin]
you
سىزگە،سىزنى،سىزدىن
[sizge,sizni,sizdin]
him
ئۇنىڭغا،ئۇنى،ئۇنىڭدىن
[uninggha,uni,uningdin]
her
ئۇنىڭغا،ئۇنى،ئۇنىڭدىن
[uninggha,uni,uningdin]
us
بىزگە،بىزنى،بىزدىن
[bizge,bizni,bizdin]
them
ئۇلارغا،ئۇلارنى،ئۇلاردىن
[ulargha,ularni,ulardin]

Possessive Pronouns
Uyghur
Pronunciation
my
مېنىڭ
[mëning]
your
سىزنىڭ
[sizning]
his
ئۇنىڭ
[uning]
her
ئۇنىڭ
[uning]
our
بىزنىڭ
[bizning]
their
ئۇلارنىڭ
[ularning]

I think it's better to put the above example in a sentence to better assist you. The following examples use pronouns in different ways and places to demonstrate how they behave in a sentence. We will start with the personal pronouns.

Personal Pronouns
Uyghur + Pronunciation
I am your friend
[1st pronoun + verb]
مەن دوستىڭىز
[men dostingiz]
you speak very fast
[2nd pronoun + adverb]
سىز بەك تېز سۆزلەيسىز
[siz bek tëz sözleysiz]
he has three dogs
[3rd pronoun + verb]
ئۇنىڭ ئۈچ ئىتى بار
[uning üch iti bar]
she can speak German
[3rd pronoun + verb]
ئۇ نېمىسچە سۆزلىيەلەيدۇ
[u Nëmische sözliyeleydu]
we will not come late
[1st plural pronoun]
بىز كېچىكىپ كەلمەيمىز
[biz këchikip kelmeymiz]
they bought milk and bread
[3rd plural pronoun]
ئۇلار سۈت ۋە بولكا سېتىۋالدى
[ular süt we bolka sëtiwaldi]

The object pronoun is used as a target by a verb, and usually come after that verb. For example: I gave him my book. The object pronoun here is him. Here are more examples:

Object Pronouns
Uyghur + Pronunciation
can you tell me your name?
[1st object pronoun]
ئىسمىڭىزنى ئېيتىپ بېرەمسىز؟
[ismingizni ëytip bëremsiz?]
I will give you money
[2nd object pronoun]
سىزگە پۇل بېرىمەن
[sizge pul bërimen]
she wrote him a letter
[3rd object pronoun]
ئۇ ئۇنىڭغا بىر پارچە خەت يازدى
[u uninggha bir parche xet yazdi]
they visited her yesterday
[3rd object pronoun]
ئۇلار تۈنۈگۈن ئۇنى زىيارەت قىلدى
[ular tünügün uni ziyaret qildi]
can she help us?
[1st pl. object pronoun]
ئۇ بىزگە ياردەم قىلالامدۇ؟
[u bizge yardem qilalamdu?]
he gave them food
[3rd pl. object pronoun]
ئۇ ئۇلارغا يېمەكلىك بەردى
[u ulargha yëmeklik berdi]

Possessive Pronouns
Uyghur + Pronunciation
my name is Maya
[1st possessive pronoun]
ئىسمىم مايا
[ismim Maya]
your brother lives here
[2nd possessive pronoun]
قېرىندىشىڭىز بۇيەردە ياشايدۇ
[qërindishingiz buyerde yashaydu]
her mother cooks for us
[3rd possessive pronoun]
ئۇنىڭ ئانىسى بىزگە تاماق ئېتپبەردى
[uning anisi bizge tamaq ëtpberdi]
his hobby is reading books
[3rd possessive pronoun]
ئۇنىڭ قىزىقىشى كىتاپ ئوقۇش
[uning qiziqishi kitap oqush]
our dream is to visit Paris
[1st pl. possessive pronoun]
بىزنىڭ ئارزۇيىمىز پارىژنى ساياھەت قىلىش
[bizning arzuyimiz Parizhni sayahet qilish]
their house is not far
[3rd pl. possessive pronoun]
ئۇلارنىڭ ئۆيى يېراق ئەمەس
[ularning öyi yëraq emes]

One more thing you need to know is the demonstrative pronouns. They're very easy to learn.

Demonstrative Pronouns
Uyghur
Pronunciation
this is my house
بۇ مېنىڭ ئۆيۈم
[bu mëning öyüm]
that restaurant is far
ئۇ تاماقخانا يېراق
[u tamaqxana yëraq]
these apples are delicious
بۇ ئالمىلار تەملىك
[bu almilar temlik]
those stars are shiny
ئۇ يۇلتۇزلار نۇرلۇق
[u yultuzlar nurluq]

I hope you learned a lot about the Uyghur grammar in this lesson. If you have any question about this lesson please contact me here. The next lesson is below, have fun!

Uyghur Phrases   Uyghur Phrases

Uyghur Vocabulary   Uyghur Vocabulary



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Inspirational Quote: First say to yourself what you would be; and then do what you have to do. Epictetus