Turkish Grammar

Welcome to the 8th lesson about Turkish grammar. We will first learn about prepositions, negation, questions, adverbs, and pronouns including: personal, object and possessive pronouns.

We will start with prepositions. In general, they are used to link words to other words. For example: I speak Turkish and English the preposition is [and] because it connects both words Turkish and English. The following is a list of the most used prepositions in Turkish.

Prepositions
Turkish
and
ve Audio
above
yukarısında Audio
under
altında Audio
before
önce, önünde Audio
after
sonra Audio
in front of
önünde Audio
behind
arkasında Audio
far from
uzak Audio
near
yakın, yakınında Audio
in
içinde Audio
inside
içinde Audio
outside
dışında, dışarısında Audio
with
ile Audio
without
olmadan Audio
about
hakkında Audio
between
arasında Audio
but
ama Audio
for
için Audio
from
itibaren Audio
to
... (y)a Audio

Preposition Grammar Rules

The following examples use prepositions in different ways and places to demonstrate how they behave in a sentence.

Prepositions + Rules
Turkish
I eat without a knife
[preposition + noun]
Ben bıçak kullanmadan yerim Audio
she lives near the church
[verb + preposition]
O kilisenin yakınında yaşıyor Audio
he is taller than her
[adjective + preposition]
O, ondan daha uzun Audio
he came with his small dog
[preposition + pronoun]
O küçük köpeği ile geldi Audio
can you come with me?
[preposition + pronoun]
Benimle gelebilirmisiniz? Audio

Negation in Turkish

Now let's learn how to make a negative sentence (negation). For example: Saying no, I can't, I don't ... The following examples use negation in different ways and places to demonstrate how they behave in a sentence.

Negation + Rules
Turkish
I understand you
[affirmative form]
Sizi anlıyorum Audio
I don't understand you
[negation + verb]
Sizi anlamıyorum Audio
this is not the correct word
[negation + adjective]
bu doğru kelime değil Audio
don't leave me
[imperative negation]
beni bırakmayın Audio
no problem
[negation + noun]
sorun yok Audio

Negative Sentences
Turkish
I don't speak French
[negation + present tense]
Ben Fransızca bilmiyorum Audio
she didn't visit Germany
[negation + past tense]
O Almanya'ya gitmedi Audio
he cannot see us
[negative modal verb]
bizi göremez Audio
can't she play chess?
[interrogative negation]
o satranç oynayamıyor mu? Audio
we will not come late
[negation + future tense]
Biz geç gelmeyeceğiz Audio

Questions in Turkish

Now let's learn how to ask questions (interrogative). Such as: what, why, can you ...? Here are some common examples:

English
Turkish
how?
nasıl? Audio
what?
ne? Audio
who?
kim? Audio
why?
neden? Audio
where?
Nerede? Nereye? Nereden? Neresi? Audio

More of the interrogative form, now in a sentence:

Questions + Rules
Turkish
where do you live?
[interrogative + verb]
Siz nerede yaşıyorsunuz? Audio
does she speak Chinese?
[interrogative verb]
O Çince konuşuyor mu? Audio
how much is this?
[interrogative preposition]
Bu ne kadar? Audio
can I help you?
[interrogative modal verb]
Size yardım edebilirim? Audio
what is your name?
[interrogative preposition]
Adınız nedir? Audio

Adverbs in Turkish

It's time to learn the adverbs in Turkish. But what is an adverb? In general, adverbs modify verbs and adjectives. For example: You speak fast. The adverb is [fast] because it describes the verb and answers the question how do you speak?. Here is a list of the most common ones:

Adverbs
Turkish
now
şimdi Audio
yesterday
dün Audio
today
bugün Audio
tonight
bu gece Audio
tomorrow
yarın Audio
soon
yakında Audio
quickly
hızlı, hızlıca Audio
slowly
yavaşça Audio
together
birlikte Audio
very
çok Audio
almost
neredeyse Audio
always
her zaman Audio
usually
genellikle Audio
sometimes
bazen Audio
rarely
nadiren Audio
never
asla Audio

The following examples use the adverbs in different ways and places to demonstrate how it behaves in a sentence.

Adverbs + Rules
Turkish
do you understand me now?
[pronoun + adverb]
Şimdi beni anlıyor musunuz? Audio
I need help immediately
[noun + adverb]
Hemen yardıma ihtiyacım var Audio
she is very intelligent
[adverb + adjective]
o çok zeki Audio
I will always love you
[verb + adverb]
Seni her zaman seveceğim Audio
can we learn German together?
[adverb in a question]
Birlikte Almanca öğrenebilir miyiz? Audio

Pronouns in Turkish

We're almost done! This time we will learn the pronouns in Turkish. In general, a pronoun can be used instead of a noun. For example instead of saying my teacher speaks 3 languages, you can use the pronoun he, and say he speaks 3 languages. Here is a list of the most common ones:

Personal Pronouns
Turkish
I
ben Audio
you
sen, siz Audio
he
o Audio
she
o Audio
we
biz Audio
they
onlar Audio

Object Pronouns
Turkish
me
beni, bana Audio
you
seni, sana / sizi,size Audio
him
onu, ona Audio
her
onu, ona Audio
us
biz, bizi, bize Audio
them
onları, onlara Audio

Possessive Pronouns
Turkish
my
benim Audio
your
senin Audio
his
onun Audio
her
onun Audio
our
bizim Audio
their
onların Audio

I think it's better to put the above example in a sentence to better assist you. The following examples use pronouns in different ways and places to demonstrate how they behave in a sentence. We will start with the personal pronouns.

Personal Pronouns
Turkish
I am your friend
[1st pronoun + verb]
Ben sizin dostunuzum Audio
you speak very fast
[2nd pronoun + adverb]
Çok hızlı konuşuyorsunuz Audio
he has three dogs
[3rd pronoun + verb]
onun üç köpeği var Audio
she can speak German
[3rd pronoun + verb]
o Almanca konuşabilir Audio
we will not come late
[1st plural pronoun]
Geç gelmeyeceğiz Audio
they bought milk and bread
[3rd plural pronoun]
Süt ve ekmek aldılar Audio

The object pronoun is used as a target by a verb, and usually come after that verb. For example: I gave him my book. The object pronoun here is him. Here are more examples:

Object Pronouns
Turkish
can you tell me your name?
[1st object pronoun]
Bana adınızı söyleyebilir misiniz? Audio
I will give you money
[2nd object pronoun]
Size para vereceğim Audio
she wrote him a letter
[3rd object pronoun]
ona bir mektup yazdı Audio
they visited her yesterday
[3rd object pronoun]
Onlar dün onu ziyaret etti Audio
can she help us?
[1st pl. object pronoun]
o bize yardımcı olabilir mi? Audio
he gave them food
[3rd pl. object pronoun]
O, onlara yiyecek verdi Audio

Possessive Pronouns
Turkish
my name is Maya
[1st possessive pronoun]
benim adım Maya Audio
your brother lives here
[2nd possessive pronoun]
Kardeşiniz burada yaşıyor Audio
her mother cooks for us
[3rd possessive pronoun]
Onun annesi bizim için yemek yapıyor Audio
his hobby is reading books
[3rd possessive pronoun]
Onun hobisi kitap okumak Audio
our dream is to visit Paris
[1st pl. possessive pronoun]
Bizim hayalimiz Paris'i ziyaret etmek Audio
their house is not far
[3rd pl. possessive pronoun]
Onların evi uzak değil Audio

One more thing you need to know is the demonstrative pronouns. They're very easy to learn.

Demonstrative Pronouns
Turkish
this is my house
Bu benim evim Audio
that restaurant is far
Bu restoran uzakta Audio
these apples are delicious
Bu elmalar lezzetli Audio
those stars are shiny
Şu yıldızlar parlak Audio

I hope you learned a lot about the Turkish grammar in this lesson. If you have any question about this lesson please contact me here. The next lesson is below, have fun!

Turkish Phrases   Turkish Phrases

Turkish Vocabulary   Turkish Vocabulary



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Inspirational Quote: First say to yourself what you would be; and then do what you have to do. Epictetus