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Thai Grammar

Welcome to the 8th lesson about Thai grammar. We will first learn about prepositions, negation, questions, adverbs, and pronouns including: personal, object and possessive pronouns. To hear the pronunciation, just click on the sound icon.

We will start with prepositions. In general, they are used to link words to other words. For example: I speak Thai and English the preposition is [and] because it connects both words Thai and English. The following is a list of the most used prepositions in Thai.

Prepositions - Thai - Pronunciation
and และ [lae] Audio
above เหนือ, บน [nuea bon] Audio
under ภายใต้ [phai tai] Audio
before ก่อน [kon] Audio
after หลังจาก [lang chak] Audio
in front of ต่อหน้า [to na] Audio
behind ข้างหลัง [khang lang] Audio
far from ห่างไกล จาก [hangklai chak] Audio
near ใกล้ [klai] Audio
in ใน [nai] Audio
inside ข้างใน [khang nai] Audio
outside ข้างนอก [khang nok] Audio
with ด้วย [duai] Audio
without ไม่มี [mai mi] Audio
about เกี่ยวกับ [kiao kap] Audio
between ระหว่าง [rawang] Audio
but แต่ [tae] Audio
for สำหรับ [samrap] Audio
from จาก [chak] Audio
to ไปยัง [pai yang] Audio

Preposition Grammar Rules

The following examples use prepositions in different ways and places to demonstrate how they behave in a sentence.

Prepositions + Rules - Thai + Pronunciation
I eat without a knife
[preposition + noun] ฉันกินได้โดยไม่มีมีด Audio [chankindaidoimaimimit]
she lives near the church
[verb + preposition] เธออาศัยอยู่ใกล้โบสถ์ Audio [thoeasaiayuklaibot]
he is taller than her
[adjective + preposition] เขาเป็นคนที่สูงกว่าเธอ Audio [khaopenkhonthisungkwathoe]
he came with his small dog
[preposition + pronoun] เขามาพร้อมกับสุนัขขนาดเล็กของเขา Audio [khaomapromkapsunakkhanatlekkhongkhao]
can you come with me?
[preposition + pronoun] คุณสามารถมากับผมได้ไหม Audio [khunsamarotmakapphomdaimai]

Negation in Thai

Now let's learn how to make a negative sentence (negation). For example: Saying no, I can't, I don't ... The following examples use negation in different ways and places to demonstrate how they behave in a sentence.

Negation + Rules - Thai + Pronunciation
I understand you
[affirmative form] ผมเข้าใจคุณ Audio [phomkhaochaikhun]
I don't understand you
[negation + verb] ฉันไม่เข้าใจคุณ Audio [chanmaikhaochaikhun]
this is not the correct word
[negation + adjective] นี้ไม่ได้เป็นคำที่ถูกต้อง Audio [nimaidaipenkhamthithuktong]
don't leave me
[imperative negation] อย่าทิ้งฉัน Audio [ya thing chan]
no problem
[negation + noun] ไม่มีปัญหา Audio [mai mi panha]

Negative Sentences - Thai + Pronunciation
I don't speak French
[negation + present tense] ฉันพูดภาษาฝรั่งเศสไม่ได้ Audio [chanphutphasafarangsetmaidai]
she didn't visit Germany
[negation + past tense] เธอไม่ได้แวะไปที่เยอรมนี Audio [thoemaidaiwaepaithiyoeromni]
he cannot see us
[negative modal verb] เขาไม่สามารถมองเห็นเรา Audio [khaomaisamanthomonghenrao]
can't she play chess?
[interrogative negation] เธอไม่สามารถเล่นหมากรุก? Audio [thoemaisamarotlenmakruk]
we will not come late
[negation + future tense] เราจะไม่มาสาย Audio [raochamaimasai]

Questions in Thai

Now let's learn how to ask questions (interrogative). Such as: what, why, can you ...? Here are some common examples:

English - Thai - Pronunciation
how? อย่างไร? [yang rai] Audio
what? อะไร? [arai] Audio
who? ใคร? [khrai] Audio
why? ทำไม? [thammai] Audio
where? ที่? [thi] Audio

More of the interrogative form, now in a sentence:

Questions + Rules - Thai + Pronunciation
where do you live?
[interrogative + verb] คุณอยู่ที่ไหน? Audio [khun yu thi nai]
does she speak Chinese?
[interrogative verb] เธอพูดภาษาจีนใช่ไหม? Audio [thoephutphasachinchaimai]
how much is this?
[interrogative preposition] ราคาเท่าไหร่? Audio [rakhathaorai]
can I help you?
[interrogative modal verb] ฉันสามารถช่วยคุณได้อย่างไร Audio [chansamanthachuaikhundaiayangrai]
what is your name?
[interrogative preposition] ชื่อของคุณคืออะไร? Audio [chuekhongkhunkhuearai]

Adverbs in Thai

It's time to learn the adverbs in Thai. But what is an adverb? In general, adverbs modify verbs and adjectives. For example: You speak fast. The adverb is [fast] because it describes the verb and answers the question how do you speak?. Here is a list of the most common ones:

Adverbs - Thai - Pronunciation
now เดี๋ยวนี้ [diao ni] Audio
yesterday เมื่อวาน [muea wan] Audio
today วันนี้ [wan ni] Audio
tonight คืนนี้ [khuen ni] Audio
tomorrow วันพรุ่ง นี้ [wanphrung ni] Audio
soon ในไม่ช้า [nai mai cha] Audio
quickly อย่างรวดเร็ว [yang ruat reo] Audio
slowly อย่างช้า [ayangcha] Audio
together ด้วยกัน [duai kan] Audio
very มาก [mak] Audio
almost เกือบจะ [kueap cha] Audio
always เสมอ [samoe] Audio
usually ปกติ [pakati] Audio
sometimes บางครั้ง [bang khrang] Audio
rarely นานๆ [nan nan] Audio
never ไม่เคย [mai khoei] Audio

The following examples use the adverbs in different ways and places to demonstrate how it behaves in a sentence.

Adverbs + Rules - Thai + Pronunciation
do you understand me now?
[pronoun + adverb] คุณเข้าใจผมตอนนี้หรือไม่ Audio [khunkhaochaiphomtonniruemai]
I need help immediately
[noun + adverb] ฉันต้องการความช่วยเหลือทันที Audio [chantongkankhwamchuailueathanthi]
she is very intelligent
[adverb + adjective] เธอเป็นที่ฉลาดมาก Audio [thoepenthichalatmak]
I will always love you
[verb + adverb] ฉันจะรักคุณตลอดไป Audio [chancharakkhuntlotpai]
can we learn German together?
[adverb in a question] เราสามารถเรียนภาษาเยอรมันร่วมกันได้ไหม? Audio [raosamarotrianphasayoenmanruamkandaimai]

Pronouns in Thai

We're almost done! This time we will learn the pronouns in Thai. In general, a pronoun can be used instead of a noun. For example instead of saying my teacher speaks 3 languages, you can use the pronoun he, and say he speaks 3 languages. Here is a list of the most common ones:

Personal Pronouns - Thai - Pronunciation
I ฉัน [chan] Audio
you คุณ [khun] Audio
he เขา [khao] Audio
she เธอ [thoe] Audio
we เรา [rao] Audio
they พวกเขา [phuak khao] Audio

Object Pronouns - Thai - Pronunciation
me ฉัน [chan] Audio
you คุณ [khun] Audio
him เขา [khao] Audio
her เธอ [thoe] Audio
us พวกเรา [phuak rao] Audio
them พวกเขา [phuak khao] Audio

Possessive Pronouns - Thai - Pronunciation
my ของ ฉัน [khong chan] Audio
your ของคุณ [khong khun] Audio
his ของ เขา [khong khao] Audio
her ของเธอ [khongthoe] Audio
our ของ เรา [khong rao] Audio
their ของ พวกเขา [khong phuakkhao] Audio

I think it's better to put the above example in a sentence to better assist you. The following examples use pronouns in different ways and places to demonstrate how they behave in a sentence. We will start with the personal pronouns.

Personal Pronouns - Thai + Pronunciation
I am your friend
[1st pronoun + verb] ฉันเป็นเพื่อนของคุณ Audio [chanpenphueankhongkhun]
you speak very fast
[2nd pronoun + adverb] คุณพูดเร็วมาก Audio [khunphutreomak]
he has three dogs
[3rd pronoun + verb] เขามีสุนัขสามตัว Audio [khaomisunaksamtua]
she can speak German
[3rd pronoun + verb] เธอสามารถพูดภาษาเยอรมันได้ Audio [thoesamarotphutphasayoenmandai]
we will not come late
[1st plural pronoun] เราจะไม่มาสาย Audio [raochamaimasai]
they bought milk and bread
[3rd plural pronoun] พวกเขาซื้อนมและขนมปัง Audio [phuakkhaosuenomlaekhonmapang]

The object pronoun is used as a target by a verb, and usually come after that verb. For example: I gave him my book. The object pronoun here is him. Here are more examples:

Object Pronouns - Thai + Pronunciation
can you tell me your name?
[1st object pronoun] คุณสามารถบอกชื่อของคุณหรือไม่ Audio [khunsamanthopokchuekhongkhunruemai]
I will give you money
[2nd object pronoun] ฉันจะให้เงินคุณ Audio [chanchahaingoenkhun]
she wrote him a letter
[3rd object pronoun] เธอเขียนจดหมายถึงเขา Audio [thoekhianchotmaithuengkhao]
they visited her yesterday
[3rd object pronoun] พวกเขาไปเยี่ยมเธอเมื่อวานนี้ Audio [phuakkhaopaiyiamthoemueawanni]
can she help us?
[1st pl. object pronoun] เธอสามารถช่วยเรา? Audio [thoesamarotchuairao]
he gave them food
[3rd pl. object pronoun] เขาให้อาหารพวกเรา Audio [khaohaiahanphuakrao]

Possessive Pronouns - Thai + Pronunciation
my name is Maya
[1st possessive pronoun] ฉันชื่อมายา Audio [chanchuemaya]
your brother lives here
[2nd possessive pronoun] พี่ชายของคุณอาศัยอยู่ที่นี่ Audio [phichaikhongkhunasaiayuthini]
her mother cooks for us
[3rd possessive pronoun] แม่ของเธอทำอาหารสำหรับพวกเรา Audio [maekhongthoethamahansamrapphuakrao]
his hobby is reading books
[3rd possessive pronoun] งานอดิเรกของเขาคือการอ่านหนังสือ Audio [nganodirekkhongkhaokhuekanannangsue]
our dream is to visit Paris
[1st pl. possessive pronoun] ความฝันของเราคือการไปปารีส Audio [khwamfankhongraokhuekanpaiparit]
their house is not far
[3rd pl. possessive pronoun] บ้านของพวกเขาอยู่ไม่ไกล Audio [bankhongphuakkhaoayumaiklai]

One more thing you need to know is the demonstrative pronouns. They're very easy to learn.

Demonstrative Pronouns - Thai - Pronunciation
this is my house นี้คือบ้านของฉัน [nikhuebankhongchan] Audio
that restaurant is far ร้านอาหารนั้นอยู่ห่างไกล [ranahannanayuhangklai] Audio
these apples are delicious แอปเปิ้ลเหล่านี้อร่อย [aeppoenlaoniaroi] Audio
those stars are shiny ดาวเหล่านั้นเป็นประกาย [daolaonanpenprakai] Audio

I hope you learned a lot about the Thai grammar in this lesson. Please check out our main menu here for more lessons: homepage. The next lesson is below, have fun!

Inspirational Quote: First say to yourself what you would be; and then do what you have to do. Epictetus

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