Sundanese Grammar

Welcome to the 8th lesson about Sundanese grammar. We will first learn about prepositions, negation, questions, adverbs, and pronouns including: personal, object and possessive pronouns.

We will start with prepositions. In general, they are used to link words to other words. For example: I speak Sundanese and English the preposition is [and] because it connects both words Sundanese and English. The following is a list of the most used prepositions in Sundanese.

Prepositions
Sundanese
and
sareng
above
di luhur
under
di handap
before
sa teu acan
after
sa atos
in front of
di payuneun
behind
di pengker
far from
tebih ti
near
caket
in
di lebet
inside
di lebet
outside
di luar
with
sareng
without
tanpa
about
perkawis
between
di antawis
but
mung/tapi
for
kanggo
from
ti
to
ka

Preposition Grammar Rules

The following examples use prepositions in different ways and places to demonstrate how they behave in a sentence.

Prepositions + Rules
Sundanese
I eat without a knife
[preposition + noun]
abdi tuang teu ngangge peso
she lives near the church
[verb + preposition]
anjeuna linggih caket gereja
he is taller than her
[adjective + preposition]
anjeuna langkung jangkung tibatan manehna
he came with his small dog
[preposition + pronoun]
anjeuna dongkap sareng anjingna nu alit
can you come with me?
[preposition + pronoun]
tiasa ngiring sareng abdi?

Negation in Sundanese

Now let's learn how to make a negative sentence (negation). For example: Saying no, I can't, I don't ... The following examples use negation in different ways and places to demonstrate how they behave in a sentence.

Negation + Rules
Sundanese
I understand you
[affirmative form]
muhun abdi ngartos
I don't understand you
[negation + verb]
punten abdi kirang ngartos
this is not the correct word
[negation + adjective]
ieu teh sanes kecap anu leres
don't leave me
[imperative negation]
antosan ulah mayunan
no problem
[negation + noun]
wios teu kunanaon

Negative Sentences
Sundanese
I don't speak French
[negation + present tense]
abdi teu tiasa nyarios basa perancis
she didn't visit Germany
[negation + past tense]
anjeuna heunteu ka jerman
he cannot see us
[negative modal verb]
anjeuna teu tiasa ninggal urang
can't she play chess?
[interrogative negation]
anjeuna tiasa maen catur teu?
we will not come late
[negation + future tense]
abdi/urang sadaya moal telat

Questions in Sundanese

Now let's learn how to ask questions (interrogative). Such as: what, why, can you ...? Here are some common examples:

English
Sundanese
how?
kumaha?
what?
naon?
who?
saha?
why?
naha?
where?
di palih mana?

More of the interrogative form, now in a sentence:

Questions + Rules
Sundanese
where do you live?
[interrogative + verb]
dupi linggih di mana?
does she speak Chinese?
[interrogative verb]
anjeuna tiasa nyarios basa cina?
how much is this?
[interrogative preposition]
sabaraha pangaosna?
can I help you?
[interrogative modal verb]
aya nu tiasa dibantos?
what is your name?
[interrogative preposition]
dupi nami saha?

Adverbs in Sundanese

It's time to learn the adverbs in Sundanese. But what is an adverb? In general, adverbs modify verbs and adjectives. For example: You speak fast. The adverb is [fast] because it describes the verb and answers the question how do you speak?. Here is a list of the most common ones:

Adverbs
Sundanese
now
ayeuna
yesterday
kamari
today
dinten ayeuna
tonight
wengi ayeuna
tomorrow
enjing
soon
sakedap deui/tereh
quickly
enggalan
slowly
lalaunan
together
sadayana
very
pisan
almost
ampir
always
osok
usually
biasana
sometimes
sakapeung
rarely
jarang
never
tara

The following examples use the adverbs in different ways and places to demonstrate how it behaves in a sentence.

Adverbs + Rules
Sundanese
do you understand me now?
[pronoun + adverb]
ngartos teu ayeuna?
I need help immediately
[noun + adverb]
abdi geuwat peryogi bantuan
she is very intelligent
[adverb + adjective]
anjeuna the cerdas pisan
I will always love you
[verb + adverb]
abdi bakal teras bogoh ka anjeun
can we learn German together?
[adverb in a question]
tiasa teu sasarengan diajar basa jerman?

Pronouns in Sundanese

We're almost done! This time we will learn the pronouns in Sundanese. In general, a pronoun can be used instead of a noun. For example instead of saying my teacher speaks 3 languages, you can use the pronoun he, and say he speaks 3 languages. Here is a list of the most common ones:

Personal Pronouns
Sundanese
I
abdi
you
anjeun
he
anjeuna
she
anjeuna
we
abdi sadaya/urang sadaya
they
aranjeuna

Object Pronouns
Sundanese
me
abdi
you
anjeun
him
anjeuna
her
anjeuna
us
abdi sadaya/urang sadaya
them
aranjeuna

Possessive Pronouns
Sundanese
my
nu abdi
your
nu anjeun
his
nu anjeuna
her
nu anjeuna
our
nu abdi sadaya/nu urang sadaya
their
nu aranjeuna

I think it's better to put the above example in a sentence to better assist you. The following examples use pronouns in different ways and places to demonstrate how they behave in a sentence. We will start with the personal pronouns.

Personal Pronouns
Sundanese
I am your friend
[1st pronoun + verb]
abdi rerencangan anjeun
you speak very fast
[2nd pronoun + adverb]
anjeun nyarios enggal pisan
he has three dogs
[3rd pronoun + verb]
anjeuna gaduh anjing tilu
she can speak German
[3rd pronoun + verb]
anjeuna tiasa nyarios jerman
we will not come late
[1st plural pronoun]
abdi sadaya/urang sadaya moal dongkap telat
they bought milk and bread
[3rd plural pronoun]
aranjeuna meser susu sareng roti

The object pronoun is used as a target by a verb, and usually come after that verb. For example: I gave him my book. The object pronoun here is him. Here are more examples:

Object Pronouns
Sundanese
can you tell me your name?
[1st object pronoun]
kengeng terang namina saha?
I will give you money
[2nd object pronoun]
abdi engke masihan artos
she wrote him a letter
[3rd object pronoun]
anjeuna nyeratan ka manehna
they visited her yesterday
[3rd object pronoun]
anjeuna nepangan manehna kamari
can she help us?
[1st pl. object pronoun]
anjeuna tiasa ngabantosan teu?
he gave them food
[3rd pl. object pronoun]
anjeuna masihan tuangeun ka aranjeuna

Possessive Pronouns
Sundanese
my name is Maya
[1st possessive pronoun]
nami abdi maya
your brother lives here
[2nd possessive pronoun]
raka/rayi pamegetna linggis di dieu
her mother cooks for us
[3rd possessive pronoun]
ibu na masak kanggo urang sadaya
his hobby is reading books
[3rd possessive pronoun]
karesepna the maca buku
our dream is to visit Paris
[1st pl. possessive pronoun]
impenan abdi the dongkap ka paris
their house is not far
[3rd pl. possessive pronoun]
rorompok na the henteu tebih

One more thing you need to know is the demonstrative pronouns. They're very easy to learn.

Demonstrative Pronouns
Sundanese
this is my house
ieu teh rorompok abdi
that restaurant is far
rumah makan na teh tebih
these apples are delicious
apel-apelna the raos pisan
those stars are shiny
bentang-bentang na caang

I hope you learned a lot about the Sundanese grammar in this lesson. If you have any question about this lesson please contact me here. The next lesson is below, have fun!

Sundanese Phrases   Sundanese Phrases

Sundanese Vocabulary   Sundanese Vocabulary



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Inspirational Quote: First say to yourself what you would be; and then do what you have to do. Epictetus