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Sundanese Grammar

Welcome to the 8th lesson about Sundanese grammar. We will first learn about prepositions, negation, questions, adverbs, and pronouns including: personal, object and possessive pronouns.

We will start with prepositions. In general, they are used to link words to other words. For example: I speak Sundanese and English the preposition is [and] because it connects both words Sundanese and English. The following is a list of the most used prepositions in Sundanese.

Prepositions - Sundanese
and sareng
above di luhur
under di handap
before sa teu acan
after sa atos
in front of di payuneun
behind di pengker
far from tebih ti
near caket
in di lebet
inside di lebet
outside di luar
with sareng
without tanpa
about perkawis
between di antawis
but mung/tapi
for kanggo
from ti
to ka

Preposition Grammar Rules

The following examples use prepositions in different ways and places to demonstrate how they behave in a sentence.

Prepositions + Rules - Sundanese
I eat without a knife
[preposition + noun] abdi tuang teu ngangge peso
she lives near the church
[verb + preposition] anjeuna linggih caket gereja
he is taller than her
[adjective + preposition] anjeuna langkung jangkung tibatan manehna
he came with his small dog
[preposition + pronoun] anjeuna dongkap sareng anjingna nu alit
can you come with me?
[preposition + pronoun] tiasa ngiring sareng abdi?

Negation in Sundanese

Now let's learn how to make a negative sentence (negation). For example: Saying no, I can't, I don't ... The following examples use negation in different ways and places to demonstrate how they behave in a sentence.

Negation + Rules - Sundanese
I understand you
[affirmative form] muhun abdi ngartos
I don't understand you
[negation + verb] punten abdi kirang ngartos
this is not the correct word
[negation + adjective] ieu teh sanes kecap anu leres
don't leave me
[imperative negation] antosan ulah mayunan
no problem
[negation + noun] wios teu kunanaon

Negative Sentences - Sundanese
I don't speak French
[negation + present tense] abdi teu tiasa nyarios basa perancis
she didn't visit Germany
[negation + past tense] anjeuna heunteu ka jerman
he cannot see us
[negative modal verb] anjeuna teu tiasa ninggal urang
can't she play chess?
[interrogative negation] anjeuna tiasa maen catur teu?
we will not come late
[negation + future tense] abdi/urang sadaya moal telat

Questions in Sundanese

Now let's learn how to ask questions (interrogative). Such as: what, why, can you ...? Here are some common examples:

English - Sundanese
how? kumaha?
what? naon?
who? saha?
why? naha?
where? di palih mana?

More of the interrogative form, now in a sentence:

Questions + Rules - Sundanese
where do you live?
[interrogative + verb] dupi linggih di mana?
does she speak Chinese?
[interrogative verb] anjeuna tiasa nyarios basa cina?
how much is this?
[interrogative preposition] sabaraha pangaosna?
can I help you?
[interrogative modal verb] aya nu tiasa dibantos?
what is your name?
[interrogative preposition] dupi nami saha?

Adverbs in Sundanese

It's time to learn the adverbs in Sundanese. But what is an adverb? In general, adverbs modify verbs and adjectives. For example: You speak fast. The adverb is [fast] because it describes the verb and answers the question how do you speak?. Here is a list of the most common ones:

Adverbs - Sundanese
now ayeuna
yesterday kamari
today dinten ayeuna
tonight wengi ayeuna
tomorrow enjing
soon sakedap deui/tereh
quickly enggalan
slowly lalaunan
together sadayana
very pisan
almost ampir
always osok
usually biasana
sometimes sakapeung
rarely jarang
never tara

The following examples use the adverbs in different ways and places to demonstrate how it behaves in a sentence.

Adverbs + Rules - Sundanese
do you understand me now?
[pronoun + adverb] ngartos teu ayeuna?
I need help immediately
[noun + adverb] abdi geuwat peryogi bantuan
she is very intelligent
[adverb + adjective] anjeuna the cerdas pisan
I will always love you
[verb + adverb] abdi bakal teras bogoh ka anjeun
can we learn German together?
[adverb in a question] tiasa teu sasarengan diajar basa jerman?

Pronouns in Sundanese

We're almost done! This time we will learn the pronouns in Sundanese. In general, a pronoun can be used instead of a noun. For example instead of saying my teacher speaks 3 languages, you can use the pronoun he, and say he speaks 3 languages. Here is a list of the most common ones:

Personal Pronouns - Sundanese
I abdi
you anjeun
he anjeuna
she anjeuna
we abdi sadaya/urang sadaya
they aranjeuna

Object Pronouns - Sundanese
me abdi
you anjeun
him anjeuna
her anjeuna
us abdi sadaya/urang sadaya
them aranjeuna

Possessive Pronouns - Sundanese
my nu abdi
your nu anjeun
his nu anjeuna
her nu anjeuna
our nu abdi sadaya/nu urang sadaya
their nu aranjeuna

I think it's better to put the above example in a sentence to better assist you. The following examples use pronouns in different ways and places to demonstrate how they behave in a sentence. We will start with the personal pronouns.

Personal Pronouns - Sundanese
I am your friend
[1st pronoun + verb] abdi rerencangan anjeun
you speak very fast
[2nd pronoun + adverb] anjeun nyarios enggal pisan
he has three dogs
[3rd pronoun + verb] anjeuna gaduh anjing tilu
she can speak German
[3rd pronoun + verb] anjeuna tiasa nyarios jerman
we will not come late
[1st plural pronoun] abdi sadaya/urang sadaya moal dongkap telat
they bought milk and bread
[3rd plural pronoun] aranjeuna meser susu sareng roti

The object pronoun is used as a target by a verb, and usually come after that verb. For example: I gave him my book. The object pronoun here is him. Here are more examples:

Object Pronouns - Sundanese
can you tell me your name?
[1st object pronoun] kengeng terang namina saha?
I will give you money
[2nd object pronoun] abdi engke masihan artos
she wrote him a letter
[3rd object pronoun] anjeuna nyeratan ka manehna
they visited her yesterday
[3rd object pronoun] anjeuna nepangan manehna kamari
can she help us?
[1st pl. object pronoun] anjeuna tiasa ngabantosan teu?
he gave them food
[3rd pl. object pronoun] anjeuna masihan tuangeun ka aranjeuna

Possessive Pronouns - Sundanese
my name is Maya
[1st possessive pronoun] nami abdi maya
your brother lives here
[2nd possessive pronoun] raka/rayi pamegetna linggis di dieu
her mother cooks for us
[3rd possessive pronoun] ibu na masak kanggo urang sadaya
his hobby is reading books
[3rd possessive pronoun] karesepna the maca buku
our dream is to visit Paris
[1st pl. possessive pronoun] impenan abdi the dongkap ka paris
their house is not far
[3rd pl. possessive pronoun] rorompok na the henteu tebih

One more thing you need to know is the demonstrative pronouns. They're very easy to learn.

Demonstrative Pronouns - Sundanese
this is my house ieu teh rorompok abdi
that restaurant is far rumah makan na teh tebih
these apples are delicious apel-apelna the raos pisan
those stars are shiny bentang-bentang na caang

I hope you learned a lot about the Sundanese grammar in this lesson. Please check out our main menu here for more lessons: homepage. The next lesson is below, have fun!

Inspirational Quote: First say to yourself what you would be; and then do what you have to do. Epictetus

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