Spanish Grammar

Welcome to the 8th lesson about Spanish grammar. We will first learn about prepositions, negation, questions, adverbs, and pronouns including: personal, object and possessive pronouns.

We will start with prepositions. In general, they are used to link words to other words. For example: I speak Spanish and English the preposition is [and] because it connects both words Spanish and English. The following is a list of the most used prepositions in Spanish.

Prepositions
Spanish
and
y Audio
above
por encima Audio
under
por debajo Audio
before
antes Audio
after
después de Audio
in front of
delante de Audio
behind
detrás de Audio
far from
lejos de Audio
near
cerca de Audio
in
en Audio
inside
dentro de Audio
outside
fuera de Audio
with
con Audio
without
sin Audio
about
sobre Audio
between
entre Audio
but
pero Audio
for
para Audio
from
de Audio
to
a Audio

Preposition Grammar Rules

The following examples use prepositions in different ways and places to demonstrate how they behave in a sentence.

Prepositions + Rules
Spanish
I eat without a knife
[preposition + noun]
como sin cuchillo Audio
she lives near the church
[verb + preposition]
ella vive cerca de la iglesia Audio
he is taller than her
[adjective + preposition]
él es más alto que ella Audio
he came with his small dog
[preposition + pronoun]
llegó con su pequeño perro Audio
can you come with me?
[preposition + pronoun]
¿puedes venir conmigo? Audio

Negation in Spanish

Now let's learn how to make a negative sentence (negation). For example: Saying no, I can't, I don't ... The following examples use negation in different ways and places to demonstrate how they behave in a sentence.

Negation + Rules
Spanish
I understand you
[affirmative form]
yo te entiendo Audio
I don't understand you
[negation + verb]
yo no te entiendo Audio
this is not the correct word
[negation + adjective]
esta no es la palabra correcta Audio
don't leave me
[imperative negation]
no me dejes Audio
no problem
[negation + noun]
no hay problema Audio

Negative Sentences
Spanish
I don't speak French
[negation + present tense]
yo no hablo francés Audio
she didn't visit Germany
[negation + past tense]
ella no visitó alemania Audio
he cannot see us
[negative modal verb]
él no nos puede ver Audio
can't she play chess?
[interrogative negation]
¿ella sabe jugar al ajedrez? Audio
we will not come late
[negation + future tense]
no vamos a llegar tarde Audio

Questions in Spanish

Now let's learn how to ask questions (interrogative). Such as: what, why, can you ...? Here are some common examples:

English
Spanish
how?
¿cómo? Audio
what?
¿qué? Audio
who?
¿quién? Audio
why?
¿por qué? Audio
where?
¿dónde? Audio

More of the interrogative form, now in a sentence:

Questions + Rules
Spanish
where do you live?
[interrogative + verb]
¿dónde vives? Audio
does she speak Chinese?
[interrogative verb]
¿ella habla chino? Audio
how much is this?
[interrogative preposition]
¿cuánto es esto? Audio
can I help you?
[interrogative modal verb]
¿puedo ayudarle? Audio
what is your name?
[interrogative preposition]
¿cuál es tu nombre? Audio

Adverbs in Spanish

It's time to learn the adverbs in Spanish. But what is an adverb? In general, adverbs modify verbs and adjectives. For example: You speak fast. The adverb is [fast] because it describes the verb and answers the question how do you speak?. Here is a list of the most common ones:

Adverbs
Spanish
now
ahora Audio
yesterday
ayer Audio
today
hoy Audio
tonight
esta noche Audio
tomorrow
mañana Audio
soon
pronto Audio
quickly
rápidamente Audio
slowly
despacio Audio
together
juntos Audio
very
muy Audio
almost
casi Audio
always
siempre Audio
usually
por lo general Audio
sometimes
a veces Audio
rarely
rara vez Audio
never
nunca Audio

The following examples use the adverbs in different ways and places to demonstrate how it behaves in a sentence.

Adverbs + Rules
Spanish
do you understand me now?
[pronoun + adverb]
¿me entiendes ahora? Audio
I need help immediately
[noun + adverb]
necesito ayuda inmediatamente Audio
she is very intelligent
[adverb + adjective]
ella es muy inteligente Audio
I will always love you
[verb + adverb]
yo siempre te amaré Audio
can we learn German together?
[adverb in a question]
¿podemos aprender alemán juntos? Audio

Pronouns in Spanish

We're almost done! This time we will learn the pronouns in Spanish. In general, a pronoun can be used instead of a noun. For example instead of saying my teacher speaks 3 languages, you can use the pronoun he, and say he speaks 3 languages. Here is a list of the most common ones:

Personal Pronouns
Spanish
I
yo Audio
you
tu/usted Audio
he
él Audio
she
ella Audio
we
nosotros Audio
they
ellos Audio

Object Pronouns
Spanish
me
yo Audio
you
te Audio
him
le (él) Audio
her
le (ella) Audio
us
nos Audio
them
los Audio

Possessive Pronouns
Spanish
my
mi Audio
your
tu Audio
his
su (él) Audio
her
su (ella) Audio
our
nuestro Audio
their
su (ellos) Audio

I think it's better to put the above example in a sentence to better assist you. The following examples use pronouns in different ways and places to demonstrate how they behave in a sentence. We will start with the personal pronouns.

Personal Pronouns
Spanish
I am your friend
[1st pronoun + verb]
yo soy tu amigo Audio
you speak very fast
[2nd pronoun + adverb]
usted habla muy rápido Audio
he has three dogs
[3rd pronoun + verb]
él tiene tres perros Audio
she can speak German
[3rd pronoun + verb]
ella puede hablar alemán Audio
we will not come late
[1st plural pronoun]
no vamos a llegar tarde Audio
they bought milk and bread
[3rd plural pronoun]
compraron leche y el pan Audio

The object pronoun is used as a target by a verb, and usually come after that verb. For example: I gave him my book. The object pronoun here is him. Here are more examples:

Object Pronouns
Spanish
can you tell me your name?
[1st object pronoun]
¿me puede decir su nombre? Audio
I will give you money
[2nd object pronoun]
yo le daré dinero Audio
she wrote him a letter
[3rd object pronoun]
ella le escribió una carta Audio
they visited her yesterday
[3rd object pronoun]
ellos la visitaron ayer Audio
can she help us?
[1st pl. object pronoun]
¿ella nos puede ayudar? Audio
he gave them food
[3rd pl. object pronoun]
él les dio comida Audio

Possessive Pronouns
Spanish
my name is Maya
[1st possessive pronoun]
mi nombre es maya Audio
your brother lives here
[2nd possessive pronoun]
su hermano vive aquí Audio
her mother cooks for us
[3rd possessive pronoun]
su madre cocina para nosotros Audio
his hobby is reading books
[3rd possessive pronoun]
su hobby es leer libros Audio
our dream is to visit Paris
[1st pl. possessive pronoun]
nuestro sueño es visitar parís Audio
their house is not far
[3rd pl. possessive pronoun]
su casa no está lejos Audio

One more thing you need to know is the demonstrative pronouns. They're very easy to learn.

Demonstrative Pronouns
Spanish
this is my house
esta es mi casa Audio
that restaurant is far
ese restaurante está lejos Audio
these apples are delicious
estas manzanas son deliciosas Audio
those stars are shiny
esas estrellas son brillantes Audio

I hope you learned a lot about the Spanish grammar in this lesson. If you have any question about this lesson please contact me here. The next lesson is below, have fun!

Spanish Phrases   Spanish Phrases

Spanish Vocabulary   Spanish Vocabulary



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Inspirational Quote: First say to yourself what you would be; and then do what you have to do. Epictetus