Portuguese Grammar

Welcome to the 8th lesson about Portuguese grammar. We will first learn about prepositions, negation, questions, adverbs, and pronouns including: personal, object and possessive pronouns.

We will start with prepositions. In general, they are used to link words to other words. For example: I speak Portuguese and English the preposition is [and] because it connects both words Portuguese and English. The following is a list of the most used prepositions in Portuguese.

Prepositions
Portuguese
and
e Audio
above
acima Audio
under
abaixo Audio
before
antes Audio
after
depois Audio
in front of
em frente de Audio
behind
atrás Audio
far from
distante, longe de Audio
near
perto Audio
in
em Audio
inside
dentro de Audio
outside
fora de Audio
with
com Audio
without
sem Audio
about
sobre Audio
between
entre Audio
but
mas Audio
for
para Audio
from
de Audio
to
para Audio

Preposition Grammar Rules

The following examples use prepositions in different ways and places to demonstrate how they behave in a sentence.

Prepositions + Rules
Portuguese
I eat without a knife
[preposition + noun]
eu como sem faca Audio
she lives near the church
[verb + preposition]
ela mora perto da igreja Audio
he is taller than her
[adjective + preposition]
ele é mais alto do que ela Audio
he came with his small dog
[preposition + pronoun]
ele veio com o seu cão pequeno Audio
can you come with me?
[preposition + pronoun]
pode vir comigo?podes vir comigo? Audio

Negation in Portuguese

Now let's learn how to make a negative sentence (negation). For example: Saying no, I can't, I don't ... The following examples use negation in different ways and places to demonstrate how they behave in a sentence.

Negation + Rules
Portuguese
I understand you
[affirmative form]
eu compreendo-o/eu compreendo-te Audio
I don't understand you
[negation + verb]
eu não o compreendo/eu não te compreendo Audio
this is not the correct word
[negation + adjective]
esta não é a palavra correta Audio
don't leave me
[imperative negation]
não me deixe/não me deixes Audio
no problem
[negation + noun]
sem problema Audio

Negative Sentences
Portuguese
I don't speak French
[negation + present tense]
eu não falo francês Audio
she didn't visit Germany
[negation + past tense]
ela não visitou a alemanha Audio
he cannot see us
[negative modal verb]
ele não pode nos ver Audio
can't she play chess?
[interrogative negation]
ela não pode jogar xadrez? Audio
we will not come late
[negation + future tense]
nós não vamos chegar tarde Audio

Questions in Portuguese

Now let's learn how to ask questions (interrogative). Such as: what, why, can you ...? Here are some common examples:

English
Portuguese
how?
como? Audio
what?
o que? Audio
who?
quem? Audio
why?
porquê? Audio
where?
onde? Audio

More of the interrogative form, now in a sentence:

Questions + Rules
Portuguese
where do you live?
[interrogative + verb]
onde mora?/onde moras? Audio
does she speak Chinese?
[interrogative verb]
ela fala chinês? Audio
how much is this?
[interrogative preposition]
quanto é isso? Audio
can I help you?
[interrogative modal verb]
posso ajudá-lo?posso ajudar-te? Audio
what is your name?
[interrogative preposition]
qual é o seu nome?qual é o teu nome? Audio

Adverbs in Portuguese

It's time to learn the adverbs in Portuguese. But what is an adverb? In general, adverbs modify verbs and adjectives. For example: You speak fast. The adverb is [fast] because it describes the verb and answers the question how do you speak?. Here is a list of the most common ones:

Adverbs
Portuguese
now
agora Audio
yesterday
ontem Audio
today
hoje Audio
tonight
hoje à noite Audio
tomorrow
amanhã Audio
soon
em breve Audio
quickly
rapidamente Audio
slowly
lentamente Audio
together
juntos Audio
very
muito Audio
almost
quase Audio
always
sempre Audio
usually
geralmente Audio
sometimes
às vezes Audio
rarely
raramente Audio
never
nunca Audio

The following examples use the adverbs in different ways and places to demonstrate how it behaves in a sentence.

Adverbs + Rules
Portuguese
do you understand me now?
[pronoun + adverb]
entende-me agora?entendes-me agora? Audio
I need help immediately
[noun + adverb]
preciso de ajuda imediatamente Audio
she is very intelligent
[adverb + adjective]
ela é muito inteligente Audio
I will always love you
[verb + adverb]
vou amar-te sempre Audio
can we learn German together?
[adverb in a question]
podemos aprender alemão juntos? Audio

Pronouns in Portuguese

We're almost done! This time we will learn the pronouns in Portuguese. In general, a pronoun can be used instead of a noun. For example instead of saying my teacher speaks 3 languages, you can use the pronoun he, and say he speaks 3 languages. Here is a list of the most common ones:

Personal Pronouns
Portuguese
I
eu Audio
you
tu Audio
he
ele Audio
she
ela Audio
we
nós Audio
they
eles, elas Audio

Object Pronouns
Portuguese
me
me Audio
you
te/vós Audio
him
o; lhe Audio
her
a; lhe Audio
us
nós Audio
them
os/as; lhes Audio

Possessive Pronouns
Portuguese
my
meu Audio
your
teu/seu Audio
his
seu (dele) Audio
her
sua (dela) Audio
our
nosso Audio
their
seus, suas Audio

I think it's better to put the above example in a sentence to better assist you. The following examples use pronouns in different ways and places to demonstrate how they behave in a sentence. We will start with the personal pronouns.

Personal Pronouns
Portuguese
I am your friend
[1st pronoun + verb]
eu sou seu amigo/eu sou teu amigo Audio
you speak very fast
[2nd pronoun + adverb]
fala muito rápido/falas muito rapido Audio
he has three dogs
[3rd pronoun + verb]
ele tem três cães Audio
she can speak German
[3rd pronoun + verb]
ela fala alemão Audio
we will not come late
[1st plural pronoun]
nós não vamos chegar tarde Audio
they bought milk and bread
[3rd plural pronoun]
eles compraram leite e pão Audio

The object pronoun is used as a target by a verb, and usually come after that verb. For example: I gave him my book. The object pronoun here is him. Here are more examples:

Object Pronouns
Portuguese
can you tell me your name?
[1st object pronoun]
pode dizer- me o nome?podes dizer-me o teu nome? Audio
I will give you money
[2nd object pronoun]
vou dar-lhe dinheiro/vou dar-te dinheiro Audio
she wrote him a letter
[3rd object pronoun]
ela escreveu-lhe uma carta Audio
they visited her yesterday
[3rd object pronoun]
eles visitaram-na ontem Audio
can she help us?
[1st pl. object pronoun]
ela pode nos ajudar? Audio
he gave them food
[3rd pl. object pronoun]
ele deu-lhes comida Audio

Possessive Pronouns
Portuguese
my name is Maya
[1st possessive pronoun]
o meu nome é maya Audio
your brother lives here
[2nd possessive pronoun]
o seu irmão mora aqui/o teu irmão mora aqui Audio
her mother cooks for us
[3rd possessive pronoun]
a sua mãe cozinha para nós Audio
his hobby is reading books
[3rd possessive pronoun]
o seu hobby é a leitura de livros Audio
our dream is to visit Paris
[1st pl. possessive pronoun]
o nosso sonho é visitar paris Audio
their house is not far
[3rd pl. possessive pronoun]
a casa deles não é longe Audio

One more thing you need to know is the demonstrative pronouns. They're very easy to learn.

Demonstrative Pronouns
Portuguese
this is my house
esta é minha casa Audio
that restaurant is far
aquele restaurante é longe Audio
these apples are delicious
estas maçãs são deliciosas Audio
those stars are shiny
aquelas estrelas são brilhantes Audio

I hope you learned a lot about the Portuguese grammar in this lesson. If you have any question about this lesson please contact me here. The next lesson is below, have fun!

Portuguese Phrases   Portuguese Phrases

Portuguese Vocabulary   Portuguese Vocabulary



Share

Inspirational Quote: First say to yourself what you would be; and then do what you have to do. Epictetus