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Pashto Grammar

Welcome to the 8th lesson about Pashto grammar. We will first learn about prepositions, negation, questions, adverbs, and pronouns including: personal, object and possessive pronouns.

We will start with prepositions. In general, they are used to link words to other words. For example: I speak Pashto and English the preposition is [and] because it connects both words Pashto and English. The following is a list of the most used prepositions in Pashto.

Prepositions - Pashto
and او
above پورته
under لاندی
before مخکی
after وروسته
in front of په وړاندې
behind تر شا
far from هاخوا
near نږدی
in په
inside دننه
outside د باندې
with سره
without پرته
about په اړه
between تر منځ
but خو
for لپاره
from له
to ته

Preposition Grammar Rules

The following examples use prepositions in different ways and places to demonstrate how they behave in a sentence.

Prepositions + Rules - Pashto
I eat without a knife
[preposition + noun] زه له چاړه پرته خوراک کوم
she lives near the church
[verb + preposition] هغه له کلیسا سره نږدې اوسیږي
he is taller than her
[adjective + preposition] هغه له هغې لوړ دی
he came with his small dog
[preposition + pronoun] هغه له خپل کوچني سپي سره راغلې و
can you come with me?
[preposition + pronoun] آیا ته له ما سره راتلې شې؟

Negation in Pashto

Now let's learn how to make a negative sentence (negation). For example: Saying no, I can't, I don't ... The following examples use negation in different ways and places to demonstrate how they behave in a sentence.

Negation + Rules - Pashto
I understand you
[affirmative form] زه تا پېژنم
I don't understand you
[negation + verb] زه تا نه پېژنم
this is not the correct word
[negation + adjective] دا سم لفظ نه دی
don't leave me
[imperative negation] ما مه پرېږده
no problem
[negation + noun] کومه ستونزه نشته

Negative Sentences - Pashto
I don't speak French
[negation + present tense] زه په فرانسوي ژبه خبرې نه کوم
she didn't visit Germany
[negation + past tense] هغې المان ته سفر نه و کړې
he cannot see us
[negative modal verb] هغه له مونږ سره نه شي لیدلی
can't she play chess?
[interrogative negation] آیا هغه د شطرنج لوبه نه شي کولی؟
we will not come late
[negation + future tense] مونږ به ناوخته رانه شو

Questions in Pashto

Now let's learn how to ask questions (interrogative). Such as: what, why, can you ...? Here are some common examples:

English - Pashto
how? څنګه؟
what? څه؟
who? څوک؟
why? ولې؟
where? چېرته؟

More of the interrogative form, now in a sentence:

Questions + Rules - Pashto
where do you live?
[interrogative + verb] تاسې چېرته اوسېږئ؟
does she speak Chinese?
[interrogative verb] آیا هغه په چینايي ژبه خبرې کولی شي؟
how much is this?
[interrogative preposition] دا په څو دی؟
can I help you?
[interrogative modal verb] آیا زه له تا سره مرسته کولی شم؟
what is your name?
[interrogative preposition] ستاسې نوم څه دی؟

Adverbs in Pashto

It's time to learn the adverbs in Pashto. But what is an adverb? In general, adverbs modify verbs and adjectives. For example: You speak fast. The adverb is [fast] because it describes the verb and answers the question how do you speak?. Here is a list of the most common ones:

Adverbs - Pashto
now اوس
yesterday پرون
today نن
tonight نن شپه
tomorrow سبا
soon ژر
quickly په تیزۍ سره
slowly ورو ورو
together يو ځای
very ډېر
almost تقریبآ
always تل
usually معمولآ
sometimes کله ناکله
rarely ډېر لږ
never هيڅکله نه

The following examples use the adverbs in different ways and places to demonstrate how it behaves in a sentence.

Adverbs + Rules - Pashto
do you understand me now?
[pronoun + adverb] آیا ته اوس ما پېژنې؟
I need help immediately
[noun + adverb] زه چټکې مرستې ته اړتیا لرم
she is very intelligent
[adverb + adjective] هغه ډېره هوښیاره ده
I will always love you
[verb + adverb] زه به تل له تا سره مینه کوم
can we learn German together?
[adverb in a question] آیا مونږ الماني ژبه په ګډه سره زده کولای شو؟

Pronouns in Pashto

We're almost done! This time we will learn the pronouns in Pashto. In general, a pronoun can be used instead of a noun. For example instead of saying my teacher speaks 3 languages, you can use the pronoun he, and say he speaks 3 languages. Here is a list of the most common ones:

Personal Pronouns - Pashto
I زه
you ته/تاسی
he هغه سړی
she هغه ښځه
we موږ
they هغوی

Object Pronouns - Pashto
me ماته
you تاته/تاسو ته
him هغه سړی
her هغه ښځه
us مونږ ته
them هغوی ته

Possessive Pronouns - Pashto
my زما
your ستا/ستاسو
his دهغه سړی
her دهغی ښځی
our زموږ
their د هغوی

I think it's better to put the above example in a sentence to better assist you. The following examples use pronouns in different ways and places to demonstrate how they behave in a sentence. We will start with the personal pronouns.

Personal Pronouns - Pashto
I am your friend
[1st pronoun + verb] زه ستا ملګری یم
you speak very fast
[2nd pronoun + adverb] ته ډېرې تېزې خبرې کوې
he has three dogs
[3rd pronoun + verb] هغه درې سپي لري
she can speak German
[3rd pronoun + verb] هغه په الماني ژبه خبرې کولی شي
we will not come late
[1st plural pronoun] مونږ به ناوخته رانه شو
they bought milk and bread
[3rd plural pronoun] هغوي شیدې او ډوډۍ اخیستې وه

The object pronoun is used as a target by a verb, and usually come after that verb. For example: I gave him my book. The object pronoun here is him. Here are more examples:

Object Pronouns - Pashto
can you tell me your name?
[1st object pronoun] آیا ته ما ته خپل نوم ښودلی شې؟
I will give you money
[2nd object pronoun] زه به تا ته پیسې درکړم
she wrote him a letter
[3rd object pronoun] هغې هغه ته لیک لیکلی و
they visited her yesterday
[3rd object pronoun] هغوي پرون له هغې سره ولیدل
can she help us?
[1st pl. object pronoun] آیا هغه له مونږ سره مرسته کولی شي؟
he gave them food
[3rd pl. object pronoun] هغه هغوي ته خوراک ورکړ

Possessive Pronouns - Pashto
my name is Maya
[1st possessive pronoun] زما نوم مایا دی
your brother lives here
[2nd possessive pronoun] ستا ورور دلته اوسیږي
her mother cooks for us
[3rd possessive pronoun] د هغه مور مونږ ته پخلی کوي
his hobby is reading books
[3rd possessive pronoun] د هغه تفرېح د کتابونو مطالعه ده
our dream is to visit Paris
[1st pl. possessive pronoun] پاریس ته سفر زمونږ خوب دی
their house is not far
[3rd pl. possessive pronoun] د هغوي کور لرې نه دی

One more thing you need to know is the demonstrative pronouns. They're very easy to learn.

Demonstrative Pronouns - Pashto
this is my house دا زما کور دی
that restaurant is far هغه رستورانت لرې دی
these apples are delicious دغه مڼې خوږې دي
those stars are shiny هغه ستوري ځلېدونکي دي

I hope you learned a lot about the Pashto grammar in this lesson. Please check out our main menu here for more lessons: homepage. The next lesson is below, have fun!

Inspirational Quote: First say to yourself what you would be; and then do what you have to do. Epictetus

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