Mongolian Grammar

Welcome to the 8th lesson about Mongolian grammar. We will first learn about prepositions, negation, questions, adverbs, and pronouns including: personal, object and possessive pronouns. To hear the pronunciation, just click on the sound icon.

We will start with prepositions. In general, they are used to link words to other words. For example: I speak Mongolian and English the preposition is [and] because it connects both words Mongolian and English. The following is a list of the most used prepositions in Mongolian.

PrepositionsMongolianPronunciation
andба, болон[ba, bolon]
aboveдээр[dkheer]
underдоор[door]
beforeөмнө [өmnө]
afterдараа[daraa]
in front ofурд[urd]
behindард[ard]
far fromхол[khol]
nearойролцоо [oĭroltsoo]
inдотор[dotor]
insideдотор[dotor]
outsideгадна[gadna]
with -тай[ -taĭ]
without -гүй[ -gүĭ]
aboutойролцоогоор[oĭroltsoogoor]
betweenдунд[dund]
butгэхдээ[gekhdkhee]
for[ -d]
from -аас[ -aas]
toрүү[rүү]

Preposition Grammar Rules

The following examples use prepositions in different ways and places to demonstrate how they behave in a sentence.

Prepositions + RulesMongolian + Pronunciation
I eat without a knife
[preposition + noun]
би хутгагүйгээр иддэг
[bi khutgagүĭgkheer iddeg]
she lives near the church
[verb + preposition]
тэр эмэгтэй сүмийн ойролцоо амьдардаг
[kheer ekheegkheeĭ sүmiĭn oĭroltsoo amʹdardag]
he is taller than her
[adjective + preposition]
тэр эрэгтэй тэр эмэгтэйгээс өндөр
[kheer ekheegkheeĭ kheer ekheegkheeĭgkhees өndөr]
he came with his small dog
[preposition + pronoun]
тэр эрэгтэй жижиг нохойтойгоо ирсэн
[kheer ekheegkheeĭ zhizhig nokhoĭtoĭgoo irkheen]
can you come with me?
[preposition + pronoun]
та надтай хамт явж чадах уу?
[ta nadtaĭ khamt yavzh chadakh uu?]

Negation in Mongolian

Now let's learn how to make a negative sentence (negation). For example: Saying no, I can't, I don't ... The following examples use negation in different ways and places to demonstrate how they behave in a sentence.

Negation + RulesMongolian + Pronunciation
I understand you
[affirmative form]
би таныг ойлгож байна
[bi tanyg oĭlgozh baĭna]
I don't understand you
[negation + verb]
би таныг ойлгохгүй байна
[bi tanyg oĭlgokhgүĭ baĭna]
this is not the correct word
[negation + adjective]
энэ зөв үг биш
[ekhee zөv үg bish]
don't leave me
[imperative negation]
намайг бүү үлдээгээч
[namaĭg bүү үldkheegkheech]
no problem
[negation + noun]
зүгээр зүгээр
[zүgkheer zүgkheer]

Negative SentencesMongolian + Pronunciation
I don't speak French
[negation + present tense]
би франц хэлээр ярьдаггүй
[bi frants kheekhekheer yarʹdaggүĭ]
she didn't visit Germany
[negation + past tense]
тэр эмэгтэй германд аялаагүй
[kheer ekheegkheeĭ germand ayalaagүĭ]
he cannot see us
[negative modal verb]
тэр эрэгтэй биднийг харж чадахгүй
[kheer ekheegkheeĭ bidniĭg kharzh chadakhgүĭ]
can't she play chess?
[interrogative negation]
тэр эмэгтэй шатар тоглож чадахгүй юм уу?
[kheer ekheegkheeĭ shatar toglozh chadakhgүĭ yum uu?]
we will not come late
[negation + future tense]
бид оройтож ирэхгүй
[bid oroĭtozh ikheekhgүĭ]

Questions in Mongolian

Now let's learn how to ask questions (interrogative). Such as: what, why, can you ...? Here are some common examples:

EnglishMongolianPronunciation
how?хэрхэн?[kheerkheen?]
what?юу?[yuu?]
who?хэн?[kheen?]
why?яагаад?[yaagaad?]
where?хаана?[khaana?]

More of the interrogative form, now in a sentence:

Questions + RulesMongolian + Pronunciation
where do you live?
[interrogative + verb]
чи хаана амьдардаг вэ?
[chi khaana amʹdardag ve?]
does she speak Chinese?
[interrogative verb]
тэр эмэгтэй хятад хэлээр ярьдаг уу?
[kheer ekheegkheeĭ khyatad kheekhekheer yarʹdag uu?]
how much is this?
[interrogative preposition]
энэ ямар үнэтэй вэ?
[ekhee yamar үkheekheeĭ ve?]
can I help you?
[interrogative modal verb]
би таньд туслах уу?
[bi tanʹd tuslakh uu?]
what is your name?
[interrogative preposition]
таныг хэн гэдэг вэ?
[tanyg kheen gedeg ve?]

Adverbs in Mongolian

It's time to learn the adverbs in Mongolian. But what is an adverb? In general, adverbs modify verbs and adjectives. For example: You speak fast. The adverb is [fast] because it describes the verb and answers the question how do you speak?. Here is a list of the most common ones:

AdverbsMongolianPronunciation
nowодоо[odoo]
yesterdayөчигдөр[өchigdөr]
todayөнөөдөр[өnөөdөr]
tonightөнөө шөнө[өnөө shөnө]
tomorrowмаргааш[margaash]
soonудахгүй[udakhgүĭ]
quicklyхурдан[khurdan]
slowlyудаан[udaan]
togetherхамт[khamt]
veryмаш, их[mash, ikh]
almostбараг[barag]
alwaysүргэлж[үrgelzh]
usuallyихэвчлэн[ikheevchkheen]
sometimesхааяа[khaayaa]
rarelyцөөхөн[tsөөkhөn]
neverхэзээ ч[kheezkhee ch]

The following examples use the adverbs in different ways and places to demonstrate how it behaves in a sentence.

Adverbs + RulesMongolian + Pronunciation
do you understand me now?
[pronoun + adverb]
та намайг одоо ойлгож байна уу?
[ta namaĭg odoo oĭlgozh baĭna uu?]
I need help immediately
[noun + adverb]
надад яаралтай тусламж хэрэгтэй байна
[nadad yaaraltaĭ tuslamzh kheekheegkheeĭ baĭna]
she is very intelligent
[adverb + adjective]
тэр эмэгтэй их ухаантай
[kheer ekheegkheeĭ ikh ukhaantaĭ]
I will always love you
[verb + adverb]
би чамайг үргэлж хайрлах болно
[bi chamaĭg үrgelzh khaĭrlakh bolno]
can we learn German together?
[adverb in a question]
бид хамтдаа герман хэл сурж болох уу?
[bid khamtdaa german kheel surzh bolokh uu?]

Pronouns in Mongolian

We're almost done! This time we will learn the pronouns in Mongolian. In general, a pronoun can be used instead of a noun. For example instead of saying my teacher speaks 3 languages, you can use the pronoun he, and say he speaks 3 languages. Here is a list of the most common ones:

Personal PronounsMongolianPronunciation
Iби[bi]
youта[ta]
heтэр (эрэгтэй)[kheer (ekheegkheeĭ)]
sheтэр (эмэгтэй)[kheer (ekheegkheeĭ)]
weбид[bid]
theyтэд[kheed]

Object PronounsMongolianPronunciation
meнамайг[namaĭg]
youтаныг[tanyg]
himтүүнийг (тэр эрэгтэйг)[tүүniĭg (kheer ekheegkheeĭg)]
herтүүнийг (тэр эмэгтэйг)[tүүniĭg (kheer ekheegkheeĭg)]
usбиднийг[bidniĭg]
themтэднийг[kheedniĭg]

Possessive PronounsMongolianPronunciation
myминий[miniĭ]
yourтаны[tany]
hisтүүний (тэр эрэгтэйн)[tүүniĭ (kheer ekheegkheeĭn)]
herтүүний (тэр эмэгтэйн)[tүүniĭ (kheer ekheegkheeĭn)]
ourбидний[bidniĭ]
theirтэдний[kheedniĭ]

I think it's better to put the above example in a sentence to better assist you. The following examples use pronouns in different ways and places to demonstrate how they behave in a sentence. We will start with the personal pronouns.

Personal PronounsMongolian + Pronunciation
I am your friend
[1st pronoun + verb]
би бол чиний найз
[bi bol chiniĭ naĭz]
you speak very fast
[2nd pronoun + adverb]
та их хурдан ярьж байна
[ta ikh khurdan yarʹzh baĭna]
he has three dogs
[3rd pronoun + verb]
тэр эрэгтэй гурван нохойтой
[kheer ekheegkheeĭ gurvan nokhoĭtoĭ]
she can speak German
[3rd pronoun + verb]
тэр эмэгтэй герман хэлээр ярьдаг
[kheer ekheegkheeĭ german kheekhekheer yarʹdag]
we will not come late
[1st plural pronoun]
бид оройтож ирэхгүй
[bid oroĭtozh ikheekhgүĭ]
they bought milk and bread
[3rd plural pronoun]
тэд сүү болон талх худалдаж авсан
[kheed sүү bolon talkh khudaldazh avsan]

The object pronoun is used as a target by a verb, and usually come after that verb. For example: I gave him my book. The object pronoun here is him. Here are more examples:

Object PronounsMongolian + Pronunciation
can you tell me your name?
[1st object pronoun]
та надад нэрээ хэлнэ үү?
[ta nadad kheekhekhee kheelkhee үү?]
I will give you money
[2nd object pronoun]
би таньд мөнгө өгье
[bi tanʹd mөngө өgʹe]
she wrote him a letter
[3rd object pronoun]
тэр эмэгтэй түүнд (тэр эрэгтэйд) захиа бичсэн
[kheer ekheegkheeĭ tүүnd (kheer ekheegkheeĭd) zakhia bichkheen]
they visited her yesterday
[3rd object pronoun]
тэд тэр эмэгтэйг өчигдөр эргэсэн
[kheed kheer ekheegkheeĭg өchigdөr ergekheen]
can she help us?
[1st pl. object pronoun]
тэр эмэгтэй бидэнд тусалж чадах уу?
[kheer ekheegkheeĭ bidend tusalzh chadakh uu?]
he gave them food
[3rd pl. object pronoun]
тэр эрэгтэй тэдэнд хоол өгсөн
[kheer ekheegkheeĭ kheedend khool өgsөn]

Possessive PronounsMongolian + Pronunciation
my name is Maya
[1st possessive pronoun]
намайг маяа гэдэг
[namaĭg mayaa gedeg]
your brother lives here
[2nd possessive pronoun]
таны ах энд амьдардаг
[tany akh end amʹdardag]
her mother cooks for us
[3rd possessive pronoun]
тэр эмэгтэйн ээж бидэнд хоол хийж өгдөг
[kheer ekheegkheeĭn kheezh bidend khool khiĭzh өgdөg]
his hobby is reading books
[3rd possessive pronoun]
тэр эрэгтэйн сонирхол бол ном унших
[kheer ekheegkheeĭn sonirkhol bol nom unshikh]
our dream is to visit Paris
[1st pl. possessive pronoun]
бидний мөрөөдөл бол парист аялах
[bidniĭ mөrөөdөl bol parist ayalakh]
their house is not far
[3rd pl. possessive pronoun]
тэдний байшин хол биш