Latin Grammar

Welcome to the 8th lesson about Latin grammar. We will first learn about prepositions, negation, questions, adverbs, and pronouns including: personal, object and possessive pronouns.

We will start with prepositions. In general, they are used to link words to other words. For example: I speak Latin and English the preposition is [and] because it connects both words Latin and English. The following is a list of the most used prepositions in Latin.

Prepositions
Latin
and
et Audio
above
super + acc , abl Audio
under
sub + abl Audio
before
ante + acc Audio
after
post + acc Audio
in front of
ante + acc Audio
behind
post + acc Audio
far from
procul ab + abl Audio
near
prope + acc Audio
in
in + acc , abl Audio
inside
intra + acc Audio
outside
extra + acc Audio
with
cum + abl Audio
without
sine + abl Audio
about
de + abl Audio
between
inter + acc Audio
but
sed Audio
for
per + acc Audio
from
ex + abl Audio
to
ad + acc Audio

Preposition Grammar Rules

The following examples use prepositions in different ways and places to demonstrate how they behave in a sentence.

Prepositions + Rules
Latin
I eat without a knife
[preposition + noun]
edo sine cultro Audio
she lives near the church
[verb + preposition]
ea prope ecclesiam habitat Audio
he is taller than her
[adjective + preposition]
is procerior eā est Audio
he came with his small dog
[preposition + pronoun]
is cum suo cane parvo venit Audio
can you come with me?
[preposition + pronoun]
potesne venire mecum? Audio

Negation in Latin

Now let's learn how to make a negative sentence (negation). For example: Saying no, I can't, I don't ... The following examples use negation in different ways and places to demonstrate how they behave in a sentence.

Negation + Rules
Latin
I understand you
[affirmative form]
intellego te Audio
I don't understand you
[negation + verb]
non intellego te Audio
this is not the correct word
[negation + adjective]
hoc non est verbum rectum Audio
don't leave me
[imperative negation]
noli me derelinquere Audio
no problem
[negation + noun]
nihil opus est Audio

Negative Sentences
Latin
I don't speak French
[negation + present tense]
non loquor gallice Audio
she didn't visit Germany
[negation + past tense]
ea Germaniam non visitavit Audio
he cannot see us
[negative modal verb]
non potest videre nos Audio
can't she play chess?
[interrogative negation]
nonne ea latrunculos ludere potest? Audio
we will not come late
[negation + future tense]
non sero veniemus Audio

Questions in Latin

Now let's learn how to ask questions (interrogative). Such as: what, why, can you ...? Here are some common examples:

English
Latin
how?
quomodo? Audio
what?
quid? Audio
who?
quis? Audio
why?
cur? Audio
where?
ubi? Audio

More of the interrogative form, now in a sentence:

Questions + Rules
Latin
where do you live?
[interrogative + verb]
ubi habitas? Audio
does she speak Chinese?
[interrogative verb]
ea sinice loquaturne? Audio
how much is this?
[interrogative preposition]
quanto hoc stat? Audio
can I help you?
[interrogative modal verb]
possumne adiuvare vos? Audio
what is your name?
[interrogative preposition]
quod nomen est tibi? Audio

Adverbs in Latin

It's time to learn the adverbs in Latin. But what is an adverb? In general, adverbs modify verbs and adjectives. For example: You speak fast. The adverb is [fast] because it describes the verb and answers the question how do you speak?. Here is a list of the most common ones:

Adverbs
Latin
now
nunc Audio
yesterday
heri Audio
today
hodie Audio
tonight
hac nocte Audio
tomorrow
cras Audio
soon
mox Audio
quickly
velociter Audio
slowly
tarde Audio
together
una Audio
very
valde Audio
almost
fere Audio
always
semper Audio
usually
solite Audio
sometimes
interdum Audio
rarely
rare Audio
never
numquam Audio

The following examples use the adverbs in different ways and places to demonstrate how it behaves in a sentence.

Adverbs + Rules
Latin
do you understand me now?
[pronoun + adverb]
iamne me intellegis? Audio
I need help immediately
[noun + adverb]
auxilio instante egeo Audio
she is very intelligent
[adverb + adjective]
ea calidissima est Audio
I will always love you
[verb + adverb]
te semper amabo Audio
can we learn German together?
[adverb in a question]
possumne germanicam una discere? Audio

Pronouns in Latin

We're almost done! This time we will learn the pronouns in Latin. In general, a pronoun can be used instead of a noun. For example instead of saying my teacher speaks 3 languages, you can use the pronoun he, and say he speaks 3 languages. Here is a list of the most common ones:

Personal Pronouns
Latin
I
ego Audio
you
tu /vos Audio
he
is Audio
she
ea Audio
we
nos Audio
they
ei Audio

Object Pronouns
Latin
me
mihi / me Audio
you
tibi , te / vobis, vos Audio
him
eum Audio
her
eam Audio
us
nobis, nos Audio
them
eos Audio

Possessive Pronouns
Latin
my
meus Audio
your
tuus / vester Audio
his
suus Audio
her
suus Audio
our
noster Audio
their
suus Audio

I think it's better to put the above example in a sentence to better assist you. The following examples use pronouns in different ways and places to demonstrate how they behave in a sentence. We will start with the personal pronouns.

Personal Pronouns
Latin
I am your friend
[1st pronoun + verb]
amicus tuus sum Audio
you speak very fast
[2nd pronoun + adverb]
celerissime loqueris Audio
he has three dogs
[3rd pronoun + verb]
habet tres canes Audio
she can speak German
[3rd pronoun + verb]
germanice loquari potest Audio
we will not come late
[1st plural pronoun]
non sero veniemus Audio
they bought milk and bread
[3rd plural pronoun]
ei lac panemque emerunt Audio

The object pronoun is used as a target by a verb, and usually come after that verb. For example: I gave him my book. The object pronoun here is him. Here are more examples:

Object Pronouns
Latin
can you tell me your name?
[1st object pronoun]
potesne indicare mihi quo appellaris nomine? Audio
I will give you money
[2nd object pronoun]
dabo tibi pecuniam Audio
she wrote him a letter
[3rd object pronoun]
scripsit ei epistulas Audio
they visited her yesterday
[3rd object pronoun]
ei heri visitavi eam Audio
can she help us?
[1st pl. object pronoun]
potestne nos adiuvare? Audio
he gave them food
[3rd pl. object pronoun]
eis cibum dedit Audio

Possessive Pronouns
Latin
my name is Maya
[1st possessive pronoun]
maya nomen meum Audio
your brother lives here
[2nd possessive pronoun]
frater tuus hoc habitat Audio
her mother cooks for us
[3rd possessive pronoun]
eae mater pro nobis coquat Audio
his hobby is reading books
[3rd possessive pronoun]
eius studium est libros legere Audio
our dream is to visit Paris
[1st pl. possessive pronoun]
somnium nostrum est Parisios visitare Audio
their house is not far
[3rd pl. possessive pronoun]
non procul est domum eius Audio

One more thing you need to know is the demonstrative pronouns. They're very easy to learn.

Demonstrative Pronouns
Latin
this is my house
haec domus mea Audio
that restaurant is far
procul est ad illam tabernam Audio
these apples are delicious
haec poma suavissima sunt Audio
those stars are shiny
illae stellae nitidae sunt Audio

I hope you learned a lot about the Latin grammar in this lesson. If you have any question about this lesson please contact me here. The next lesson is below, have fun!

Latin Phrases   Latin Phrases

Latin Vocabulary   Latin Vocabulary



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Inspirational Quote: First say to yourself what you would be; and then do what you have to do. Epictetus