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Italian Grammar

Welcome to the 8th lesson about Italian grammar. We will first learn about prepositions, negation, questions, adverbs, and pronouns including: personal, object and possessive pronouns.

We will start with prepositions. In general, they are used to link words to other words. For example: I speak Italian and English the preposition is [and] because it connects both words Italian and English. The following is a list of the most used prepositions in Italian.

Prepositions - Italian
and e Audio
above sopra Audio
under sotto Audio
before prima Audio
after dopo Audio
in front of di fronte a Audio
behind dietro Audio
far from lontano da Audio
near vicino Audio
in in Audio
inside dentro Audio
outside al di fuori Audio
with con Audio
without senza Audio
about riguardo Audio
between tra Audio
but ma Audio
for per Audio
from da Audio
to a Audio

Preposition Grammar Rules

The following examples use prepositions in different ways and places to demonstrate how they behave in a sentence.

Prepositions + Rules - Italian
I eat without a knife
[preposition + noun] mangio senza coltello Audio
she lives near the church
[verb + preposition] vive vicino alla chiesa Audio
he is taller than her
[adjective + preposition] lui è più alto di lei Audio
he came with his small dog
[preposition + pronoun] è venuto con il suo cane piccolo Audio
can you come with me?
[preposition + pronoun] può venire con me? Audio

Negation in Italian

Now let's learn how to make a negative sentence (negation). For example: Saying no, I can't, I don't ... The following examples use negation in different ways and places to demonstrate how they behave in a sentence.

Negation + Rules - Italian
I understand you
[affirmative form] ho capito Audio
I don't understand you
[negation + verb] non ho capito Audio
this is not the correct word
[negation + adjective] questa non è la parola giusta Audio
don't leave me
[imperative negation] non mi lasci Audio
no problem
[negation + noun] nessun problema Audio

Negative Sentences - Italian
I don't speak French
[negation + present tense] non parlo francese Audio
she didn't visit Germany
[negation + past tense] lei non ha visitato la germania Audio
he cannot see us
[negative modal verb] lui non ci vede Audio
can't she play chess?
[interrogative negation] lei non è capace di giocare a scacchi? Audio
we will not come late
[negation + future tense] noi non arriveremo in ritardo Audio

Questions in Italian

Now let's learn how to ask questions (interrogative). Such as: what, why, can you ...? Here are some common examples:

English - Italian
how? come? Audio
what? che cosa? Audio
who? chi? Audio
why? perché? Audio
where? dove? Audio

More of the interrogative form, now in a sentence:

Questions + Rules - Italian
where do you live?
[interrogative + verb] dove abita? Audio
does she speak Chinese?
[interrogative verb] lei parla cinese? Audio
how much is this?
[interrogative preposition] quanto costa? Audio
can I help you?
[interrogative modal verb] posso aiutarla? Audio
what is your name?
[interrogative preposition] qual è il suo nome? Audio

Adverbs in Italian

It's time to learn the adverbs in Italian. But what is an adverb? In general, adverbs modify verbs and adjectives. For example: You speak fast. The adverb is [fast] because it describes the verb and answers the question how do you speak?. Here is a list of the most common ones:

Adverbs - Italian
now ora Audio
yesterday ieri Audio
today oggi Audio
tonight stasera Audio
tomorrow domani Audio
soon presto Audio
quickly rapidamente Audio
slowly lentamente Audio
together insieme Audio
very molto Audio
almost quasi Audio
always sempre Audio
usually solitamente Audio
sometimes a volte Audio
rarely raramente Audio
never mai Audio

The following examples use the adverbs in different ways and places to demonstrate how it behaves in a sentence.

Adverbs + Rules - Italian
do you understand me now?
[pronoun + adverb] ha capito adesso? Audio
I need help immediately
[noun + adverb] ho bisogno di aiuto subito Audio
she is very intelligent
[adverb + adjective] lei è molto intelligente Audio
I will always love you
[verb + adverb] io ti amerò sempre Audio
can we learn German together?
[adverb in a question] possiamo imparare insieme il tedesco? Audio

Pronouns in Italian

We're almost done! This time we will learn the pronouns in Italian. In general, a pronoun can be used instead of a noun. For example instead of saying my teacher speaks 3 languages, you can use the pronoun he, and say he speaks 3 languages. Here is a list of the most common ones:

Personal Pronouns - Italian
I io Audio
you tu, lei Audio
he egli Audio
she ella Audio
we noi Audio
they essi Audio

Object Pronouns - Italian
me me Audio
you te Audio
him lui Audio
her lei Audio
us noi Audio
them loro Audio

Possessive Pronouns - Italian
my il mio Audio
your il tuo/la tua Audio
his il suo/la sua Audio
her il suo/la sua Audio
our il nostro/la nostra Audio
their il/la loro Audio

I think it's better to put the above example in a sentence to better assist you. The following examples use pronouns in different ways and places to demonstrate how they behave in a sentence. We will start with the personal pronouns.

Personal Pronouns - Italian
I am your friend
[1st pronoun + verb] io sono il tuo amico Audio
you speak very fast
[2nd pronoun + adverb] lei parla molto veloce Audio
he has three dogs
[3rd pronoun + verb] ha tre cani Audio
she can speak German
[3rd pronoun + verb] parla tedesco Audio
we will not come late
[1st plural pronoun] non non arriveremo in ritardo Audio
they bought milk and bread
[3rd plural pronoun] hanno comprato il latte e il pane Audio

The object pronoun is used as a target by a verb, and usually come after that verb. For example: I gave him my book. The object pronoun here is him. Here are more examples:

Object Pronouns - Italian
can you tell me your name?
[1st object pronoun] può dirmi il suo nome? Audio
I will give you money
[2nd object pronoun] io le darò i soldi Audio
she wrote him a letter
[3rd object pronoun] lei gli ha scritto una lettera Audio
they visited her yesterday
[3rd object pronoun] le hanno fatto visita ieri Audio
can she help us?
[1st pl. object pronoun] lei ci può aiutare? Audio
he gave them food
[3rd pl. object pronoun] lui ci ha dato del cibo Audio

Possessive Pronouns - Italian
my name is Maya
[1st possessive pronoun] il mio nome è maya Audio
your brother lives here
[2nd possessive pronoun] suo fratello vive qui Audio
her mother cooks for us
[3rd possessive pronoun] la madre cucina per noi Audio
his hobby is reading books
[3rd possessive pronoun] il suo hobby è la lettura di libri Audio
our dream is to visit Paris
[1st pl. possessive pronoun] il nostro sogno è quello di visitare parigi Audio
their house is not far
[3rd pl. possessive pronoun] la loro casa non è lontana Audio

One more thing you need to know is the demonstrative pronouns. They're very easy to learn.

Demonstrative Pronouns - Italian
this is my house questa è la mia casa Audio
that restaurant is far questo ristorante è lontano Audio
these apples are delicious queste mele sono deliziose Audio
those stars are shiny quelle stelle sono lucenti Audio

I hope you learned a lot about the Italian grammar in this lesson. Please check out our main menu here for more lessons: homepage. The next lesson is below, have fun!

Inspirational Quote: First say to yourself what you would be; and then do what you have to do. Epictetus

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