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Indonesian Grammar

Welcome to the 8th lesson about Indonesian grammar. We will first learn about prepositions, negation, questions, adverbs, and pronouns including: personal, object and possessive pronouns.

We will start with prepositions. In general, they are used to link words to other words. For example: I speak Indonesian and English the preposition is [and] because it connects both words Indonesian and English. The following is a list of the most used prepositions in Indonesian.

Prepositions - Indonesian
and dan Audio
above atas Audio
under bawah Audio
before sebelum Audio
after setelah Audio
in front of di depan Audio
behind di belakang Audio
far from jauh dari Audio
near dekat Audio
in di Audio
inside dalam Audio
outside di luar Audio
with dengan Audio
without tanpa Audio
about tentang Audio
between antara Audio
but tapi Audio
for untuk Audio
from dari Audio
to untuk Audio

Preposition Grammar Rules

The following examples use prepositions in different ways and places to demonstrate how they behave in a sentence.

Prepositions + Rules - Indonesian
I eat without a knife
[preposition + noun] saya makan tanpa pisau Audio
she lives near the church
[verb + preposition] dia tinggal di dekat gereja Audio
he is taller than her
[adjective + preposition] dia lebih tinggi daripada dia Audio
he came with his small dog
[preposition + pronoun] ia datang dengan anjing kecil nya Audio
can you come with me?
[preposition + pronoun] dapatkah anda datang dengan saya? Audio

Negation in Indonesian

Now let's learn how to make a negative sentence (negation). For example: Saying no, I can't, I don't ... The following examples use negation in different ways and places to demonstrate how they behave in a sentence.

Negation + Rules - Indonesian
I understand you
[affirmative form] saya memahami anda Audio
I don't understand you
[negation + verb] saya tidak mengerti anda Audio
this is not the correct word
[negation + adjective] ini bukan kata yang benar Audio
don't leave me
[imperative negation] jangan tinggalkan aku Audio
no problem
[negation + noun] tidak ada masalah Audio

Negative Sentences - Indonesian
I don't speak French
[negation + present tense] saya tidak bisa bahasa prancis Audio
she didn't visit Germany
[negation + past tense] dia tidak mengunjungi jerman Audio
he cannot see us
[negative modal verb] dia tidak bisa melihat kita Audio
can't she play chess?
[interrogative negation] bisakah dia bermain catur? Audio
we will not come late
[negation + future tense] kami tidak akan datang terlambat Audio

Questions in Indonesian

Now let's learn how to ask questions (interrogative). Such as: what, why, can you ...? Here are some common examples:

English - Indonesian
how? bagaimana? Audio
what? apa? Audio
who? siapa? Audio
why? mengapa? Audio
where? dimana? Audio

More of the interrogative form, now in a sentence:

Questions + Rules - Indonesian
where do you live?
[interrogative + verb] di mana anda tinggal? Audio
does she speak Chinese?
[interrogative verb] apakah dia berbicara bahasa cina? Audio
how much is this?
[interrogative preposition] berapa harga barang ini? Audio
can I help you?
[interrogative modal verb] bisakah saya bantu kamu? Audio
what is your name?
[interrogative preposition] siapa nama anda? Audio

Adverbs in Indonesian

It's time to learn the adverbs in Indonesian. But what is an adverb? In general, adverbs modify verbs and adjectives. For example: You speak fast. The adverb is [fast] because it describes the verb and answers the question how do you speak?. Here is a list of the most common ones:

Adverbs - Indonesian
now sekarang Audio
yesterday kemarin Audio
today hari ini Audio
tonight malam ini Audio
tomorrow besok Audio
soon segera Audio
quickly segera Audio
slowly pelan-pelan Audio
together bersama Audio
very sangat Audio
almost hampir Audio
always selalu Audio
usually biasanya Audio
sometimes kadang-kadang Audio
rarely jarang Audio
never tak pernah Audio

The following examples use the adverbs in different ways and places to demonstrate how it behaves in a sentence.

Adverbs + Rules - Indonesian
do you understand me now?
[pronoun + adverb] anda mengerti saya sekarang? Audio
I need help immediately
[noun + adverb] saya perlu bantuan segera Audio
she is very intelligent
[adverb + adjective] dia sangat cerdas Audio
I will always love you
[verb + adverb] aku akan selalu mencintaimu Audio
can we learn German together?
[adverb in a question] dapatkah kita belajar bahasa german bersama ? Audio

Pronouns in Indonesian

We're almost done! This time we will learn the pronouns in Indonesian. In general, a pronoun can be used instead of a noun. For example instead of saying my teacher speaks 3 languages, you can use the pronoun he, and say he speaks 3 languages. Here is a list of the most common ones:

Personal Pronouns - Indonesian
I aku Audio
you kau,kamu Audio
he dia Audio
she dia Audio
we kita Audio
they mereka Audio

Object Pronouns - Indonesian
me saya Audio
you kamu Audio
him dia Audio
her dia Audio
us kami Audio
them mereka Audio

Possessive Pronouns - Indonesian
my saya Audio
your anda Audio
his dia Audio
her dia Audio
our kami Audio
their mereka Audio

I think it's better to put the above example in a sentence to better assist you. The following examples use pronouns in different ways and places to demonstrate how they behave in a sentence. We will start with the personal pronouns.

Personal Pronouns - Indonesian
I am your friend
[1st pronoun + verb] saya teman anda Audio
you speak very fast
[2nd pronoun + adverb] anda berbicara sangat cepat Audio
he has three dogs
[3rd pronoun + verb] dia memiliki tiga anjing Audio
she can speak German
[3rd pronoun + verb] ia dapat berbicara bahasa jerman Audio
we will not come late
[1st plural pronoun] kami tidak akan datang terlambat Audio
they bought milk and bread
[3rd plural pronoun] mereka membeli susu dan roti Audio

The object pronoun is used as a target by a verb, and usually come after that verb. For example: I gave him my book. The object pronoun here is him. Here are more examples:

Object Pronouns - Indonesian
can you tell me your name?
[1st object pronoun] dapat anda katakan pada saya nama anda? Audio
I will give you money
[2nd object pronoun] saya akan memberi anda uang Audio
she wrote him a letter
[3rd object pronoun] ia menulis surat kepadanya Audio
they visited her yesterday
[3rd object pronoun] mereka mengunjunginya kemarin Audio
can she help us?
[1st pl. object pronoun] dia bisa membantu kami? Audio
he gave them food
[3rd pl. object pronoun] dia memberi mereka makanan Audio

Possessive Pronouns - Indonesian
my name is Maya
[1st possessive pronoun] nama saya adalah maya Audio
your brother lives here
[2nd possessive pronoun] saudaramu tinggal di sini Audio
her mother cooks for us
[3rd possessive pronoun] ibunya memasak untuk kami Audio
his hobby is reading books
[3rd possessive pronoun] hobinya adalah membaca buku Audio
our dream is to visit Paris
[1st pl. possessive pronoun] mimpi kami adalah untuk mengunjungi paris Audio
their house is not far
[3rd pl. possessive pronoun] rumah mereka tidak jauh Audio

One more thing you need to know is the demonstrative pronouns. They're very easy to learn.

Demonstrative Pronouns - Indonesian
this is my house ini rumah saya Audio
that restaurant is far restoran itu jauh Audio
these apples are delicious apel apel ini sangat lezat Audio
those stars are shiny bintang-bintang itu berkilau Audio

I hope you learned a lot about the Indonesian grammar in this lesson. Please check out our main menu here for more lessons: homepage. The next lesson is below, have fun!

Inspirational Quote: First say to yourself what you would be; and then do what you have to do. Epictetus

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