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Hebrew Grammar

Welcome to the 8th lesson about Hebrew grammar. We will first learn about prepositions, negation, questions, adverbs, and pronouns including: personal, object and possessive pronouns.

We will start with prepositions. In general, they are used to link words to other words. For example: I speak Hebrew and English the preposition is [and] because it connects both words Hebrew and English. The following is a list of the most used prepositions in Hebrew.

Prepositions - Hebrew
and ו
above מעל
under מתחת
before לפני
after אחרי
in front of מול / בחזית ה/לפני
behind מאחורי
far from רחוק מ
near ליד / על יד/קרוב ל
in בתוך / ב
inside בתוך / בפנים
outside בחוץ/מחוץ ל
with עם
without ללא/בלי
about על
between בין
but אבל
for עבור/בשביל
from מן
to אל

Preposition Grammar Rules

The following examples use prepositions in different ways and places to demonstrate how they behave in a sentence.

Prepositions + Rules - Hebrew
I eat without a knife
[preposition + noun] אני אוכל ללא סכין
she lives near the church
[verb + preposition] היא גרה ליד הכנסייה
he is taller than her
[adjective + preposition] הוא גבוה ממנה
he came with his small dog
[preposition + pronoun] הוא בא עם כלב הקטן שלו
can you come with me?
[preposition + pronoun] אתה יכול לבוא איתי?

Negation in Hebrew

Now let's learn how to make a negative sentence (negation). For example: Saying no, I can't, I don't ... The following examples use negation in different ways and places to demonstrate how they behave in a sentence.

Negation + Rules - Hebrew
I understand you
[affirmative form] אני מבין אותך
I don't understand you
[negation + verb] אני לא מבין אותך
this is not the correct word
[negation + adjective] זו לא המילה הנכונה
don't leave me
[imperative negation] אל תעזב אותי
no problem
[negation + noun] אין בעיה

Negative Sentences - Hebrew
I don't speak French
[negation + present tense] אני לא מדבר צרפתית
she didn't visit Germany
[negation + past tense] היא לא בקרה בגרמניה
he cannot see us
[negative modal verb] הוא לא יכול לראות אותנו
can't she play chess?
[interrogative negation] היא לא יכולה לשחק שחמט?
we will not come late
[negation + future tense] אנחנו לא נבוא מאוחר

Questions in Hebrew

Now let's learn how to ask questions (interrogative). Such as: what, why, can you ...? Here are some common examples:

English - Hebrew
how? איך?
what? מה?
who? מי?
why? למה?
where? איפה?

More of the interrogative form, now in a sentence:

Questions + Rules - Hebrew
where do you live?
[interrogative + verb] איפה אתה גר?
does she speak Chinese?
[interrogative verb] היא מדברת סינית?
how much is this?
[interrogative preposition] כמה זה?
can I help you?
[interrogative modal verb] אני יכול לעזור לך?
what is your name?
[interrogative preposition] מה שמך?

Adverbs in Hebrew

It's time to learn the adverbs in Hebrew. But what is an adverb? In general, adverbs modify verbs and adjectives. For example: You speak fast. The adverb is [fast] because it describes the verb and answers the question how do you speak?. Here is a list of the most common ones:

Adverbs - Hebrew
now עכשיו
yesterday אתמול
today היום
tonight הערב/הלילה
tomorrow מחר
soon בקרוב
quickly מהר
slowly לאט
together יחד
very מאוד
almost כמעט
always תמיד
usually בדרך כלל
sometimes לפעמים
rarely לעתים רחוקות
never מעולם לא/לעולם לא

The following examples use the adverbs in different ways and places to demonstrate how it behaves in a sentence.

Adverbs + Rules - Hebrew
do you understand me now?
[pronoun + adverb] אתה מבין אותי עכשיו?
I need help immediately
[noun + adverb] אני זקוק לעזרה מיד
she is very intelligent
[adverb + adjective] היא אינטליגנטית מאוד
I will always love you
[verb + adverb] אני תמיד אוהב אותך
can we learn German together?
[adverb in a question] אנחנו יכולים ללמוד יחד גרמנית?

Pronouns in Hebrew

We're almost done! This time we will learn the pronouns in Hebrew. In general, a pronoun can be used instead of a noun. For example instead of saying my teacher speaks 3 languages, you can use the pronoun he, and say he speaks 3 languages. Here is a list of the most common ones:

Personal Pronouns - Hebrew
I אני
you אתה
he הוא
she היא
we אנחנו
they הם

Object Pronouns - Hebrew
me אותי
you אותך
him אותו
her לה/אותה
us אותנו
them להם/אותם

Possessive Pronouns - Hebrew
my שלי
your שלך
his שלו
her שלה
our שלנו
their שלהם

I think it's better to put the above example in a sentence to better assist you. The following examples use pronouns in different ways and places to demonstrate how they behave in a sentence. We will start with the personal pronouns.

Personal Pronouns - Hebrew
I am your friend
[1st pronoun + verb] אני חבר שלך
you speak very fast
[2nd pronoun + adverb] אתה מדבר מהר מאוד
he has three dogs
[3rd pronoun + verb] יש לו שלושה כלבים
she can speak German
[3rd pronoun + verb] היא יכולה לדבר גרמנית
we will not come late
[1st plural pronoun] אנחנו לא נבוא מאוחר
they bought milk and bread
[3rd plural pronoun] הם קנו חלב ולחם

The object pronoun is used as a target by a verb, and usually come after that verb. For example: I gave him my book. The object pronoun here is him. Here are more examples:

Object Pronouns - Hebrew
can you tell me your name?
[1st object pronoun] אתה יכול לומר לי את השם שלך?
I will give you money
[2nd object pronoun] אני אתן לך כסף
she wrote him a letter
[3rd object pronoun] היא כתבה לו מכתב
they visited her yesterday
[3rd object pronoun] הם ביקרו אותה אתמול
can she help us?
[1st pl. object pronoun] היא יכולה לעזור לנו?
he gave them food
[3rd pl. object pronoun] הוא נתן להם אוכל

Possessive Pronouns - Hebrew
my name is Maya
[1st possessive pronoun] שמי מאיה
your brother lives here
[2nd possessive pronoun] אחיך גר כאן
her mother cooks for us
[3rd possessive pronoun] אמא שלה מבשלת לנו
his hobby is reading books
[3rd possessive pronoun] התחביב שלו הוא קריאת ספרים
our dream is to visit Paris
[1st pl. possessive pronoun] החלום שלנו הוא לבקר בפריז
their house is not far
[3rd pl. possessive pronoun] הבית שלהם לא רחוק

One more thing you need to know is the demonstrative pronouns. They're very easy to learn.

Demonstrative Pronouns - Hebrew
this is my house זה הבית שלי
that restaurant is far המסעדה הזו רחוקה
these apples are delicious התפוחים האלה טעימים
those stars are shiny הכוכבים האלה זוהרים

I hope you learned a lot about the Hebrew grammar in this lesson. Please check out our main menu here for more lessons: homepage. The next lesson is below, have fun!

Inspirational Quote: First say to yourself what you would be; and then do what you have to do. Epictetus

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