Hebrew Grammar

Welcome to the 8th lesson about Hebrew grammar. We will first learn about prepositions, negation, questions, adverbs, and pronouns including: personal, object and possessive pronouns.

We will start with prepositions. In general, they are used to link words to other words. For example: I speak Hebrew and English the preposition is [and] because it connects both words Hebrew and English. The following is a list of the most used prepositions in Hebrew.

Prepositions
Hebrew
and
ו
above
מעל
under
מתחת
before
לפני
after
אחרי
in front of
מול / בחזית ה/לפני
behind
מאחורי
far from
רחוק מ
near
ליד / על יד/קרוב ל
in
בתוך / ב
inside
בתוך / בפנים
outside
בחוץ/מחוץ ל
with
עם
without
ללא/בלי
about
על
between
בין
but
אבל
for
עבור/בשביל
from
מן
to
אל

Preposition Grammar Rules

The following examples use prepositions in different ways and places to demonstrate how they behave in a sentence.

Prepositions + Rules
Hebrew
I eat without a knife
[preposition + noun]
אני אוכל ללא סכין
she lives near the church
[verb + preposition]
היא גרה ליד הכנסייה
he is taller than her
[adjective + preposition]
הוא גבוה ממנה
he came with his small dog
[preposition + pronoun]
הוא בא עם כלב הקטן שלו
can you come with me?
[preposition + pronoun]
אתה יכול לבוא איתי?

Negation in Hebrew

Now let's learn how to make a negative sentence (negation). For example: Saying no, I can't, I don't ... The following examples use negation in different ways and places to demonstrate how they behave in a sentence.

Negation + Rules
Hebrew
I understand you
[affirmative form]
אני מבין אותך
I don't understand you
[negation + verb]
אני לא מבין אותך
this is not the correct word
[negation + adjective]
זו לא המילה הנכונה
don't leave me
[imperative negation]
אל תעזב אותי
no problem
[negation + noun]
אין בעיה

Negative Sentences
Hebrew
I don't speak French
[negation + present tense]
אני לא מדבר צרפתית
she didn't visit Germany
[negation + past tense]
היא לא בקרה בגרמניה
he cannot see us
[negative modal verb]
הוא לא יכול לראות אותנו
can't she play chess?
[interrogative negation]
היא לא יכולה לשחק שחמט?
we will not come late
[negation + future tense]
אנחנו לא נבוא מאוחר

Questions in Hebrew

Now let's learn how to ask questions (interrogative). Such as: what, why, can you ...? Here are some common examples:

English
Hebrew
how?
איך?
what?
מה?
who?
מי?
why?
למה?
where?
איפה?

More of the interrogative form, now in a sentence:

Questions + Rules
Hebrew
where do you live?
[interrogative + verb]
איפה אתה גר?
does she speak Chinese?
[interrogative verb]
היא מדברת סינית?
how much is this?
[interrogative preposition]
כמה זה?
can I help you?
[interrogative modal verb]
אני יכול לעזור לך?
what is your name?
[interrogative preposition]
מה שמך?

Adverbs in Hebrew

It's time to learn the adverbs in Hebrew. But what is an adverb? In general, adverbs modify verbs and adjectives. For example: You speak fast. The adverb is [fast] because it describes the verb and answers the question how do you speak?. Here is a list of the most common ones:

Adverbs
Hebrew
now
עכשיו
yesterday
אתמול
today
היום
tonight
הערב/הלילה
tomorrow
מחר
soon
בקרוב
quickly
מהר
slowly
לאט
together
יחד
very
מאוד
almost
כמעט
always
תמיד
usually
בדרך כלל
sometimes
לפעמים
rarely
לעתים רחוקות
never
מעולם לא/לעולם לא

The following examples use the adverbs in different ways and places to demonstrate how it behaves in a sentence.

Adverbs + Rules
Hebrew
do you understand me now?
[pronoun + adverb]
אתה מבין אותי עכשיו?
I need help immediately
[noun + adverb]
אני זקוק לעזרה מיד
she is very intelligent
[adverb + adjective]
היא אינטליגנטית מאוד
I will always love you
[verb + adverb]
אני תמיד אוהב אותך
can we learn German together?
[adverb in a question]
אנחנו יכולים ללמוד יחד גרמנית?

Pronouns in Hebrew

We're almost done! This time we will learn the pronouns in Hebrew. In general, a pronoun can be used instead of a noun. For example instead of saying my teacher speaks 3 languages, you can use the pronoun he, and say he speaks 3 languages. Here is a list of the most common ones:

Personal Pronouns
Hebrew
I
אני
you
אתה
he
הוא
she
היא
we
אנחנו
they
הם

Object Pronouns
Hebrew
me
אותי
you
אותך
him
אותו
her
לה/אותה
us
אותנו
them
להם/אותם

Possessive Pronouns
Hebrew
my
שלי
your
שלך
his
שלו
her
שלה
our
שלנו
their
שלהם

I think it's better to put the above example in a sentence to better assist you. The following examples use pronouns in different ways and places to demonstrate how they behave in a sentence. We will start with the personal pronouns.

Personal Pronouns
Hebrew
I am your friend
[1st pronoun + verb]
אני חבר שלך
you speak very fast
[2nd pronoun + adverb]
אתה מדבר מהר מאוד
he has three dogs
[3rd pronoun + verb]
יש לו שלושה כלבים
she can speak German
[3rd pronoun + verb]
היא יכולה לדבר גרמנית
we will not come late
[1st plural pronoun]
אנחנו לא נבוא מאוחר
they bought milk and bread
[3rd plural pronoun]
הם קנו חלב ולחם

The object pronoun is used as a target by a verb, and usually come after that verb. For example: I gave him my book. The object pronoun here is him. Here are more examples:

Object Pronouns
Hebrew
can you tell me your name?
[1st object pronoun]
אתה יכול לומר לי את השם שלך?
I will give you money
[2nd object pronoun]
אני אתן לך כסף
she wrote him a letter
[3rd object pronoun]
היא כתבה לו מכתב
they visited her yesterday
[3rd object pronoun]
הם ביקרו אותה אתמול
can she help us?
[1st pl. object pronoun]
היא יכולה לעזור לנו?
he gave them food
[3rd pl. object pronoun]
הוא נתן להם אוכל

Possessive Pronouns
Hebrew
my name is Maya
[1st possessive pronoun]
שמי מאיה
your brother lives here
[2nd possessive pronoun]
אחיך גר כאן
her mother cooks for us
[3rd possessive pronoun]
אמא שלה מבשלת לנו
his hobby is reading books
[3rd possessive pronoun]
התחביב שלו הוא קריאת ספרים
our dream is to visit Paris
[1st pl. possessive pronoun]
החלום שלנו הוא לבקר בפריז
their house is not far
[3rd pl. possessive pronoun]
הבית שלהם לא רחוק

One more thing you need to know is the demonstrative pronouns. They're very easy to learn.

Demonstrative Pronouns
Hebrew
this is my house
זה הבית שלי
that restaurant is far
המסעדה הזו רחוקה
these apples are delicious
התפוחים האלה טעימים
those stars are shiny
הכוכבים האלה זוהרים

I hope you learned a lot about the Hebrew grammar in this lesson. If you have any question about this lesson please contact me here. The next lesson is below, have fun!

Hebrew Phrases   Hebrew Phrases

Hebrew Vocabulary   Hebrew Vocabulary



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Inspirational Quote: First say to yourself what you would be; and then do what you have to do. Epictetus