Farsi Grammar

Welcome to the 8th lesson about Farsi grammar. We will first learn about prepositions, negation, questions, adverbs, and pronouns including: personal, object and possessive pronouns.

We will start with prepositions. In general, they are used to link words to other words. For example: I speak Farsi and English the preposition is [and] because it connects both words Farsi and English. The following is a list of the most used prepositions in Farsi.

Prepositions
Farsi
and
و Audio
above
بالای Audio
under
زیر Audio
before
قبل از Audio
after
پس از Audio
in front of
در مقابل Audio
behind
پشت سر Audio
far from
دور از Audio
near
نزدیک Audio
in
در، طی Audio
inside
داخل Audio
outside
خارج از Audio
with
با Audio
without
بدون Audio
about
درباره Audio
between
میان Audio
but
اما Audio
for
برای Audio
from
از Audio
to
به Audio

Preposition Grammar Rules

The following examples use prepositions in different ways and places to demonstrate how they behave in a sentence.

Prepositions + Rules
Farsi
I eat without a knife
[preposition + noun]
من بدون کارد غذا می خورم Audio
she lives near the church
[verb + preposition]
او در نزدیکی کلیسا زندگی می کند Audio
he is taller than her
[adjective + preposition]
او بلندتر از آن خانم است Audio
he came with his small dog
[preposition + pronoun]
او با سگ کوچکش آمد Audio
can you come with me?
[preposition + pronoun]
ممکن است با من بیایید؟ Audio

Negation in Farsi

Now let's learn how to make a negative sentence (negation). For example: Saying no, I can't, I don't ... The following examples use negation in different ways and places to demonstrate how they behave in a sentence.

Negation + Rules
Farsi
I understand you
[affirmative form]
منظور شما را می فهمم Audio
I don't understand you
[negation + verb]
منظور شما را نمی فهمم Audio
this is not the correct word
[negation + adjective]
این کلمه صحیح نمی باشد Audio
don't leave me
[imperative negation]
من را تنها نگذار Audio
no problem
[negation + noun]
اشکالی ندارد Audio

Negative Sentences
Farsi
I don't speak French
[negation + present tense]
من فرانسه صحبت نمی کنم Audio
she didn't visit Germany
[negation + past tense]
او به آلمان سفر نکرد Audio
he cannot see us
[negative modal verb]
او نمی تواند ما را ببیند Audio
can't she play chess?
[interrogative negation]
او نمی تواند شطرنج بازی کند؟ Audio
we will not come late
[negation + future tense]
ما دیر نخواهیم کرد Audio

Questions in Farsi

Now let's learn how to ask questions (interrogative). Such as: what, why, can you ...? Here are some common examples:

English
Farsi
how?
چگونه؟ Audio
what?
چه؟ Audio
who?
که؟ چه کسی؟ Audio
why?
چرا؟ Audio
where?
کجا؟ Audio

More of the interrogative form, now in a sentence:

Questions + Rules
Farsi
where do you live?
[interrogative + verb]
کجا زندگی می کنید؟ Audio
does she speak Chinese?
[interrogative verb]
آیا او چینی صحبت می کند؟ Audio
how much is this?
[interrogative preposition]
قیمت این چقدر است؟ Audio
can I help you?
[interrogative modal verb]
می توانم به شما کمک کنم؟ Audio
what is your name?
[interrogative preposition]
نام شما چیست؟ Audio

Adverbs in Farsi

It's time to learn the adverbs in Farsi. But what is an adverb? In general, adverbs modify verbs and adjectives. For example: You speak fast. The adverb is [fast] because it describes the verb and answers the question how do you speak?. Here is a list of the most common ones:

Adverbs
Farsi
now
اکنون Audio
yesterday
دیروز Audio
today
امروز Audio
tonight
امشب Audio
tomorrow
فردا Audio
soon
به زودی Audio
quickly
به سرعت Audio
slowly
به آهستگی Audio
together
با هم Audio
very
بسیار Audio
almost
تقریباً Audio
always
همیشه Audio
usually
معمولاً Audio
sometimes
گاهی Audio
rarely
بندرت Audio
never
هرگز Audio

The following examples use the adverbs in different ways and places to demonstrate how it behaves in a sentence.

Adverbs + Rules
Farsi
do you understand me now?
[pronoun + adverb]
حالا منظور من را می فهمید؟ Audio
I need help immediately
[noun + adverb]
من نیاز به کمک فوری دارم Audio
she is very intelligent
[adverb + adjective]
او بسیار باهوش است. Audio
I will always love you
[verb + adverb]
من همیشه شما را دوست خواهم داشت Audio
can we learn German together?
[adverb in a question]
آیا می توانیم با هم زبان آلمانی یاد بگیریم؟ Audio

Pronouns in Farsi

We're almost done! This time we will learn the pronouns in Farsi. In general, a pronoun can be used instead of a noun. For example instead of saying my teacher speaks 3 languages, you can use the pronoun he, and say he speaks 3 languages. Here is a list of the most common ones:

Personal Pronouns
Farsi
I
من Audio
you
تو / شما Audio
he
او (مرد) Audio
she
او (زن) Audio
we
ما Audio
they
آنها Audio

Object Pronouns
Farsi
me
من را Audio
you
تو / شما را Audio
him
او را (مرد) Audio
her
او را (زن) Audio
us
ما را Audio
them
آنها را Audio

Possessive Pronouns
Farsi
my
من (مالکیت) Audio
your
تو / شما (مالکیت) Audio
his
او (مالکیت) (مرد) Audio
her
او (مالکیت) (زن) Audio
our
ما (مالکیت) Audio
their
آنها (مالکیت) Audio

I think it's better to put the above example in a sentence to better assist you. The following examples use pronouns in different ways and places to demonstrate how they behave in a sentence. We will start with the personal pronouns.

Personal Pronouns
Farsi
I am your friend
[1st pronoun + verb]
من دوست شما هستم Audio
you speak very fast
[2nd pronoun + adverb]
شما خیلی سریع حرف می زنید Audio
he has three dogs
[3rd pronoun + verb]
او سه سگ دارد Audio
she can speak German
[3rd pronoun + verb]
او می تواند آلمانی صحبت کند Audio
we will not come late
[1st plural pronoun]
ما دیر نخواهیم آمد Audio
they bought milk and bread
[3rd plural pronoun]
آنها شیر و نان خریدند Audio

The object pronoun is used as a target by a verb, and usually come after that verb. For example: I gave him my book. The object pronoun here is him. Here are more examples:

Object Pronouns
Farsi
can you tell me your name?
[1st object pronoun]
ممکن است نام شما را بدانم؟ Audio
I will give you money
[2nd object pronoun]
من به شما پول خواهم داد Audio
she wrote him a letter
[3rd object pronoun]
او برایش یک نامه نوشت Audio
they visited her yesterday
[3rd object pronoun]
آنها دیروز به ملاقات او رفتند Audio
can she help us?
[1st pl. object pronoun]
آیا می تواند به ما کمک کند؟ Audio
he gave them food
[3rd pl. object pronoun]
او به آنها غذا داد Audio

Possessive Pronouns
Farsi
my name is Maya
[1st possessive pronoun]
نام من مایا است Audio
your brother lives here
[2nd possessive pronoun]
برادر شما در اینجا زندگی می کند Audio
her mother cooks for us
[3rd possessive pronoun]
مادرش برای ما آشپزی می کند Audio
his hobby is reading books
[3rd possessive pronoun]
سرگرمی او خواندن کتاب است Audio
our dream is to visit Paris
[1st pl. possessive pronoun]
رؤیای ما این است که از پاریس دیدن کنیم Audio
their house is not far
[3rd pl. possessive pronoun]
خانه آنها دور نیست Audio

One more thing you need to know is the demonstrative pronouns. They're very easy to learn.

Demonstrative Pronouns
Farsi
this is my house
این خانه من است Audio
that restaurant is far
آن رستوران دور است Audio
these apples are delicious
این سیب ها خوشمزه اند Audio
those stars are shiny
این ستاره ها درخشان اند Audio

I hope you learned a lot about the Farsi grammar in this lesson. If you have any question about this lesson please contact me here. The next lesson is below, have fun!

Farsi Phrases   Farsi Phrases

Farsi Vocabulary   Farsi Vocabulary



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Inspirational Quote: First say to yourself what you would be; and then do what you have to do. Epictetus