Dutch Grammar

Welcome to the 8th lesson about Dutch grammar. We will first learn about prepositions, negation, questions, adverbs, and pronouns including: personal, object and possessive pronouns.

We will start with prepositions. In general, they are used to link words to other words. For example: I speak Dutch and English the preposition is [and] because it connects both words Dutch and English. The following is a list of the most used prepositions in Dutch.

Prepositions
Dutch
and
en Audio
above
boven Audio
under
onder Audio
before
voor Audio
after
na Audio
in front of
voor Audio
behind
achter Audio
far from
verre van Audio
near
nabij Audio
in
in Audio
inside
binnen Audio
outside
buiten Audio
with
met Audio
without
zonder Audio
about
over Audio
between
tussen Audio
but
maar Audio
for
voor Audio
from
uit/van Audio
to
aan Audio

Preposition Grammar Rules

The following examples use prepositions in different ways and places to demonstrate how they behave in a sentence.

Prepositions + Rules
Dutch
I eat without a knife
[preposition + noun]
ik eet zonder mes Audio
she lives near the church
[verb + preposition]
ze woont in de buurt van de kerk Audio
he is taller than her
[adjective + preposition]
hij is groter dan haar Audio
he came with his small dog
[preposition + pronoun]
hij kwam met zijn kleine hond Audio
can you come with me?
[preposition + pronoun]
kan je met me mee? Audio

Negation in Dutch

Now let's learn how to make a negative sentence (negation). For example: Saying no, I can't, I don't ... The following examples use negation in different ways and places to demonstrate how they behave in a sentence.

Negation + Rules
Dutch
I understand you
[affirmative form]
ik begrijp je Audio
I don't understand you
[negation + verb]
ik begrijp je niet Audio
this is not the correct word
[negation + adjective]
dit is niet het juiste woord Audio
don't leave me
[imperative negation]
laat me niet alleen Audio
no problem
[negation + noun]
geen probleem Audio

Negative Sentences
Dutch
I don't speak French
[negation + present tense]
ik spreek geen frans Audio
she didn't visit Germany
[negation + past tense]
ze was niet in duitsland op bezoek Audio
he cannot see us
[negative modal verb]
hij kan ons niet zien Audio
can't she play chess?
[interrogative negation]
kan ze niet schaken? Audio
we will not come late
[negation + future tense]
we zullen niet laat komen Audio

Questions in Dutch

Now let's learn how to ask questions (interrogative). Such as: what, why, can you ...? Here are some common examples:

English
Dutch
how?
hoe? Audio
what?
wat? Audio
who?
wie? Audio
why?
waarom? Audio
where?
waar? Audio

More of the interrogative form, now in a sentence:

Questions + Rules
Dutch
where do you live?
[interrogative + verb]
waar woon je? Audio
does she speak Chinese?
[interrogative verb]
spreekt ze chinees? Audio
how much is this?
[interrogative preposition]
hoeveel is dit? Audio
can I help you?
[interrogative modal verb]
kan ik u helpen? Audio
what is your name?
[interrogative preposition]
wat is je naam? Audio

Adverbs in Dutch

It's time to learn the adverbs in Dutch. But what is an adverb? In general, adverbs modify verbs and adjectives. For example: You speak fast. The adverb is [fast] because it describes the verb and answers the question how do you speak?. Here is a list of the most common ones:

Adverbs
Dutch
now
nu Audio
yesterday
gisteren Audio
today
vandaag Audio
tonight
vanavond Audio
tomorrow
morgen Audio
soon
spoedig/snel Audio
quickly
snel/vlug Audio
slowly
langzaam/traag Audio
together
samen Audio
very
zeer/erg Audio
almost
bijna Audio
always
altijd Audio
usually
gewoonlijk Audio
sometimes
soms Audio
rarely
zelden Audio
never
nooit Audio

The following examples use the adverbs in different ways and places to demonstrate how it behaves in a sentence.

Adverbs + Rules
Dutch
do you understand me now?
[pronoun + adverb]
begrijp je me nu? Audio
I need help immediately
[noun + adverb]
ik heb onmiddelijk hulp nodig Audio
she is very intelligent
[adverb + adjective]
ze is erg intelligent Audio
I will always love you
[verb + adverb]
ik zal altijd van je houden Audio
can we learn German together?
[adverb in a question]
kunnen we samen duits leren? Audio

Pronouns in Dutch

We're almost done! This time we will learn the pronouns in Dutch. In general, a pronoun can be used instead of a noun. For example instead of saying my teacher speaks 3 languages, you can use the pronoun he, and say he speaks 3 languages. Here is a list of the most common ones:

Personal Pronouns
Dutch
I
ik Audio
you
jij, je, u Audio
he
hij Audio
she
zij, ze Audio
we
wij, we Audio
they
zij Audio

Object Pronouns
Dutch
me
mij/me Audio
you
jou, uw Audio
him
hem Audio
her
haar Audio
us
ons Audio
them
hun Audio

Possessive Pronouns
Dutch
my
mijn Audio
your
jouw, uw Audio
his
zijn Audio
her
haar Audio
our
onze Audio
their
hun Audio

I think it's better to put the above example in a sentence to better assist you. The following examples use pronouns in different ways and places to demonstrate how they behave in a sentence. We will start with the personal pronouns.

Personal Pronouns
Dutch
I am your friend
[1st pronoun + verb]
ik ben je vriend Audio
you speak very fast
[2nd pronoun + adverb]
je spreekt zeer snel Audio
he has three dogs
[3rd pronoun + verb]
hij heeft drie honden Audio
she can speak German
[3rd pronoun + verb]
ze kan duits spreken Audio
we will not come late
[1st plural pronoun]
we komen niet te laat Audio
they bought milk and bread
[3rd plural pronoun]
zij kochten melk en brood Audio

The object pronoun is used as a target by a verb, and usually come after that verb. For example: I gave him my book. The object pronoun here is him. Here are more examples:

Object Pronouns
Dutch
can you tell me your name?
[1st object pronoun]
kun je mij je naam vertellen? Audio
I will give you money
[2nd object pronoun]
ik geef je geld Audio
she wrote him a letter
[3rd object pronoun]
ze schreef hem een ​​brief Audio
they visited her yesterday
[3rd object pronoun]
ze bezochten haar gisteren Audio
can she help us?
[1st pl. object pronoun]
kan ze ons helpen? Audio
he gave them food
[3rd pl. object pronoun]
hij gaf hun eten Audio

Possessive Pronouns
Dutch
my name is Maya
[1st possessive pronoun]
mijn naam is maya Audio
your brother lives here
[2nd possessive pronoun]
je broer woont hier Audio
her mother cooks for us
[3rd possessive pronoun]
haar moeder kookt voor ons Audio
his hobby is reading books
[3rd possessive pronoun]
zijn hobby is het lezen van boeken Audio
our dream is to visit Paris
[1st pl. possessive pronoun]
onze droom is om parijs te bezoeken Audio
their house is not far
[3rd pl. possessive pronoun]
hun huis is niet ver Audio

One more thing you need to know is the demonstrative pronouns. They're very easy to learn.

Demonstrative Pronouns
Dutch
this is my house
dit is mijn huis Audio
that restaurant is far
dat restaurant is ver Audio
these apples are delicious
deze appels zijn heerlijk Audio
those stars are shiny
die sterren zijn glimmend Audio

I hope you learned a lot about the Dutch grammar in this lesson. If you have any question about this lesson please contact me here. The next lesson is below, have fun!

Dutch Phrases   Dutch Phrases

Dutch Vocabulary   Dutch Vocabulary



Share

Inspirational Quote: First say to yourself what you would be; and then do what you have to do. Epictetus