Croatian Grammar

Welcome to the 8th lesson about Croatian grammar. We will first learn about prepositions, negation, questions, adverbs, and pronouns including: personal, object and possessive pronouns.

We will start with prepositions. In general, they are used to link words to other words. For example: I speak Croatian and English the preposition is [and] because it connects both words Croatian and English. The following is a list of the most used prepositions in Croatian.

Prepositions
Croatian
and
i Audio
above
iznad Audio
under
ispod Audio
before
prije Audio
after
nakon Audio
in front of
ispred Audio
behind
iza Audio
far from
daleko od Audio
near
blizu Audio
in
u Audio
inside
unutra Audio
outside
izvan Audio
with
sa Audio
without
bez Audio
about
oko Audio
between
između Audio
but
ali Audio
for
za Audio
from
iz Audio
to
na Audio

Preposition Grammar Rules

The following examples use prepositions in different ways and places to demonstrate how they behave in a sentence.

Prepositions + Rules
Croatian
I eat without a knife
[preposition + noun]
jedem bez noža Audio
she lives near the church
[verb + preposition]
živi u blizini crkve Audio
he is taller than her
[adjective + preposition]
on je viši od nje Audio
he came with his small dog
[preposition + pronoun]
došao je sa svojim malim psom Audio
can you come with me?
[preposition + pronoun]
možete li doći sa mnom? Audio

Negation in Croatian

Now let's learn how to make a negative sentence (negation). For example: Saying no, I can't, I don't ... The following examples use negation in different ways and places to demonstrate how they behave in a sentence.

Negation + Rules
Croatian
I understand you
[affirmative form]
ja vas razumijem Audio
I don't understand you
[negation + verb]
ja vas ne razumijem Audio
this is not the correct word
[negation + adjective]
ovo nije točna riječ Audio
don't leave me
[imperative negation]
ne ostavljajte me Audio
no problem
[negation + noun]
nema problema Audio

Negative Sentences
Croatian
I don't speak French
[negation + present tense]
ja ne govorim francuski Audio
she didn't visit Germany
[negation + past tense]
ona nije posjetila njemačku Audio
he cannot see us
[negative modal verb]
on nas ne može vidjeti Audio
can't she play chess?
[interrogative negation]
zna li ona igrati šah? Audio
we will not come late
[negation + future tense]
nećemo doći kasno Audio

Questions in Croatian

Now let's learn how to ask questions (interrogative). Such as: what, why, can you ...? Here are some common examples:

English
Croatian
how?
kako? Audio
what?
što? Audio
who?
tko? Audio
why?
zašto? Audio
where?
gdje? Audio

More of the interrogative form, now in a sentence:

Questions + Rules
Croatian
where do you live?
[interrogative + verb]
gdje živite? Audio
does she speak Chinese?
[interrogative verb]
govori li ona kineski? Audio
how much is this?
[interrogative preposition]
koliko je to? Audio
can I help you?
[interrogative modal verb]
mogu li vam pomoći? Audio
what is your name?
[interrogative preposition]
kako se zovete? Audio

Adverbs in Croatian

It's time to learn the adverbs in Croatian. But what is an adverb? In general, adverbs modify verbs and adjectives. For example: You speak fast. The adverb is [fast] because it describes the verb and answers the question how do you speak?. Here is a list of the most common ones:

Adverbs
Croatian
now
sada Audio
yesterday
jučer Audio
today
danas Audio
tonight
večeras Audio
tomorrow
sutra Audio
soon
uskoro Audio
quickly
brzo Audio
slowly
polako Audio
together
zajedno Audio
very
vrlo Audio
almost
skoro Audio
always
uvijek Audio
usually
obično Audio
sometimes
ponekad Audio
rarely
rijetko Audio
never
nikad Audio

The following examples use the adverbs in different ways and places to demonstrate how it behaves in a sentence.

Adverbs + Rules
Croatian
do you understand me now?
[pronoun + adverb]
razumijete li me sada? Audio
I need help immediately
[noun + adverb]
trebam pomoć odmah Audio
she is very intelligent
[adverb + adjective]
ona je vrlo inteligentna Audio
I will always love you
[verb + adverb]
uvijek ću te voljeti Audio
can we learn German together?
[adverb in a question]
možemo li naučiti njemački zajedno? Audio

Pronouns in Croatian

We're almost done! This time we will learn the pronouns in Croatian. In general, a pronoun can be used instead of a noun. For example instead of saying my teacher speaks 3 languages, you can use the pronoun he, and say he speaks 3 languages. Here is a list of the most common ones:

Personal Pronouns
Croatian
I
ja Audio
you
ti (+ vi: as 2. person pl.) Audio
he
on Audio
she
ona Audio
we
mi Audio
they
oni Audio

Object Pronouns
Croatian
me
mene Audio
you
tebe (+vas: as 2. person pl.) Audio
him
njega Audio
her
nju Audio
us
nas Audio
them
njih Audio

Possessive Pronouns
Croatian
my
moj Audio
your
tvoj Audio
his
njegov Audio
her
njen Audio
our
naš Audio
their
njihov Audio

I think it's better to put the above example in a sentence to better assist you. The following examples use pronouns in different ways and places to demonstrate how they behave in a sentence. We will start with the personal pronouns.

Personal Pronouns
Croatian
I am your friend
[1st pronoun + verb]
ja sam tvoj prijatelj Audio
you speak very fast
[2nd pronoun + adverb]
govorite vrlo brzo Audio
he has three dogs
[3rd pronoun + verb]
on ima tri psa Audio
she can speak German
[3rd pronoun + verb]
ona zna njemački Audio
we will not come late
[1st plural pronoun]
nećemo doći kasno Audio
they bought milk and bread
[3rd plural pronoun]
oni su kupili mlijeka i kruha Audio

The object pronoun is used as a target by a verb, and usually come after that verb. For example: I gave him my book. The object pronoun here is him. Here are more examples:

Object Pronouns
Croatian
can you tell me your name?
[1st object pronoun]
možete li mi reći svoje ime? Audio
I will give you money
[2nd object pronoun]
ja ću vam dati novac Audio
she wrote him a letter
[3rd object pronoun]
napisala mu je pismo Audio
they visited her yesterday
[3rd object pronoun]
posjetili su je jučer Audio
can she help us?
[1st pl. object pronoun]
može li nam ona pomoći? Audio
he gave them food
[3rd pl. object pronoun]
dao im je hranu Audio

Possessive Pronouns
Croatian
my name is Maya
[1st possessive pronoun]
moje ime je maja Audio
your brother lives here
[2nd possessive pronoun]
tvoj brat živi ovdje Audio
her mother cooks for us
[3rd possessive pronoun]
njezina majka kuha za nas Audio
his hobby is reading books
[3rd possessive pronoun]
njegov hobi je čitanje knjiga Audio
our dream is to visit Paris
[1st pl. possessive pronoun]
naš san je posjetiti pariz Audio
their house is not far
[3rd pl. possessive pronoun]
njihova kuća nije daleko Audio

One more thing you need to know is the demonstrative pronouns. They're very easy to learn.

Demonstrative Pronouns
Croatian
this is my house
ovo je moja kuća Audio
that restaurant is far
taj restoran je daleko Audio
these apples are delicious
te jabuke su ukusne Audio
those stars are shiny
one zvijezde su sjajne Audio

I hope you learned a lot about the Croatian grammar in this lesson. If you have any question about this lesson please contact me here. The next lesson is below, have fun!

Croatian Phrases   Croatian Phrases

Croatian Vocabulary   Croatian Vocabulary



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Inspirational Quote: First say to yourself what you would be; and then do what you have to do. Epictetus