Tagalog Grammar

Welcome to the 8th lesson about Tagalog grammar. We will first learn about prepositions, negation, questions, adverbs, and pronouns including: personal, object and possessive pronouns.

We will start with prepositions. In general, they are used to link words to other words. For example: I speak Tagalog and English the preposition is [and] because it connects both words Tagalog and English. The following is a list of the most used prepositions in Tagalog. To hear the pronunciation, just click on the sound icon.

Prepositions
Tagalog
and
at Audio
above
sa itaas Audio
under
sa ilalim Audio
before
bago Audio
after
pagkatapos Audio
in front of
sa harap ng Audio
behind
sa likod ng Audio
far from
malayo mula sa Audio
near
malapit sa Audio
in
sa Audio
inside
sa loob Audio
outside
sa labas Audio
with
kasama Audio
without
hindi kasama Audio
about
tungkol sa Audio
between
sa pagitan ng Audio
but
pero Audio
for
para sa Audio
from
mula sa Audio
to
sa Audio

Preposition Grammar Rules

The following examples use prepositions in different ways and places to demonstrate how they behave in a sentence.

Prepositions + Rules
Tagalog
I eat without a knife
[preposition + noun]
kumakain ako nang walang kutsilyo Audio
she lives near the church
[verb + preposition]
siya ay nakatira malapit sa simbahan Audio
he is taller than her
[adjective + preposition]
mas matangkad siya kaysa sa kanya Audio
he came with his small dog
[preposition + pronoun]
siya ay dumating kasama ang kanyang maliit na aso Audio
can you come with me?
[preposition + pronoun]
puwede kang sumama sa akin? Audio

Negation in Tagalog

Now let's learn how to make a negative sentence (negation). For example: Saying no, I can't, I don't ... The following examples use negation in different ways and places to demonstrate how they behave in a sentence.

Negation + Rules
Tagalog
I understand you
[affirmative form]
nauunawaan kita Audio
I don't understand you
[negation + verb]
hindi kita maintindihan Audio
this is not the correct word
[negation + adjective]
hindi ito ang tamang salita Audio
don't leave me
[imperative negation]
huwag mo akong iwan Audio
no problem
[negation + noun]
walang problema Audio

Negative Sentences
Tagalog
I don't speak French
[negation + present tense]
hindi ako nagsasalita ng pranses Audio
she didn't visit Germany
[negation + past tense]
hindi siya ay bumisita sa alemanya Audio
he cannot see us
[negative modal verb]
hindi niya tayo nakikita Audio
can't she play chess?
[interrogative negation]
hindi ba siya naglalaro ng tses? Audio
we will not come late
[negation + future tense]
hindi kami darating nang leyt Audio

Questions in Tagalog

Now let's learn how to ask questions (interrogative). Such as: what, why, can you ...? Here are some common examples:

English
Tagalog
how?
paano? Audio
what?
ano? Audio
who?
sino? Audio
why?
bakit? Audio
where?
saan? Audio

More of the interrogative form, now in a sentence:

Questions + Rules
Tagalog
where do you live?
[interrogative + verb]
saan ka nakatira? Audio
does she speak Chinese?
[interrogative verb]
siya ba ay nagsasalita ng tsino? Audio
how much is this?
[interrogative preposition]
magkano ito? Audio
can I help you?
[interrogative modal verb]
puwede ba kitang tulungan? Audio
what is your name?
[interrogative preposition]
ano ang pangalan mo? Audio

Adverbs in Tagalog

It's time to learn the adverbs in Tagalog. But what is an adverb? In general, adverbs modify verbs and adjectives. For example: You speak fast. The adverb is [fast] because it describes the verb and answers the question how do you speak?. Here is a list of the most common ones:

Adverbs
Tagalog
now
ngayon Audio
yesterday
kahapon Audio
today
ngayong araw Audio
tonight
ngayong gabi Audio
tomorrow
bukas Audio
soon
malapit na Audio
quickly
mabilis Audio
slowly
dahan-dahan Audio
together
sama-sama Audio
very
napaka Audio
almost
halos Audio
always
lagi Audio
usually
karaniwan Audio
sometimes
kung minsan Audio
rarely
madalang Audio
never
hindi kailanman Audio

The following examples use the adverbs in different ways and places to demonstrate how it behaves in a sentence.

Adverbs + Rules
Tagalog
do you understand me now?
[pronoun + adverb]
nauunawaan mo na ba ako ngayon? Audio
I need help immediately
[noun + adverb]
kailangan ko ng tulong agad Audio
she is very intelligent
[adverb + adjective]
napakatalino niya Audio
I will always love you
[verb + adverb]
lagi kitang iibigin Audio
can we learn German together?
[adverb in a question]
puwede ba nating sabay na aralin ang aleman? Audio

Pronouns in Tagalog

We're almost done! This time we will learn the pronouns in Tagalog. In general, a pronoun can be used instead of a noun. For example instead of saying my teacher speaks 3 languages, you can use the pronoun he, and say he speaks 3 languages. Here is a list of the most common ones:

Personal Pronouns
Tagalog
I
ako Audio
you
ikaw Audio
he
siya Audio
she
siya Audio
we
kami Audio
they
sila Audio

Object Pronouns
Tagalog
me
ako Audio
you
ikaw Audio
him
kanya Audio
her
kanya Audio
us
kami Audio
them
kanila Audio

Possessive Pronouns
Tagalog
my
ko Audio
your
iyong Audio
his
ang kanyang Audio
her
ang kanyang Audio
our
ang aming Audio
their
ang kanilang Audio

I think it's better to put the above example in a sentence to better assist you. The following examples use pronouns in different ways and places to demonstrate how they behave in a sentence. We will start with the personal pronouns.

Personal Pronouns
Tagalog
I am your friend
[1st pronoun + verb]
ako ang iyong kaibigan Audio
you speak very fast
[2nd pronoun + adverb]
napakabilis mong magsalita Audio
he has three dogs
[3rd pronoun + verb]
meron siyang tatlong aso Audio
she can speak German
[3rd pronoun + verb]
maruong siyang magsalita ng aleman Audio
we will not come late
[1st plural pronoun]
hindi kami darating ng leyt Audio
they bought milk and bread
[3rd plural pronoun]
bumili sila ng gatas at tinapay Audio

The object pronoun is used as a target by a verb, and usually come after that verb. For example: I gave him my book. The object pronoun here is him. Here are more examples:

Object Pronouns
Tagalog
can you tell me your name?
[1st object pronoun]
maaari mong sabihin sa akin ang iyong pangalan? Audio
I will give you money
[2nd object pronoun]
bibigyan kita ng pera Audio
she wrote him a letter
[3rd object pronoun]
gumawa siya ng sulat para sa kanya Audio
they visited her yesterday
[3rd object pronoun]
siya ay binisita nila kahapon Audio
can she help us?
[1st pl. object pronoun]
maaari niya ba tayong tulungan? Audio
he gave them food
[3rd pl. object pronoun]
sila ay binigyan niya ng pagkain Audio

Possessive Pronouns
Tagalog
my name is Maya
[1st possessive pronoun]
ang pangalan ko ay maya Audio
your brother lives here
[2nd possessive pronoun]
ang iyong kapatid na lalaki ay nakatira dito Audio
her mother cooks for us
[3rd possessive pronoun]
ang kanyang ina ay nagluluto para sa amin Audio
his hobby is reading books
[3rd possessive pronoun]
pagbabasa ng libro ang kanyang libangan Audio
our dream is to visit Paris
[1st pl. possessive pronoun]
pangarap naming mabisita ang paris Audio
their house is not far
[3rd pl. possessive pronoun]
ang kanilang bahay ay hindi malayo Audio

One more thing you need to know is the demonstrative pronouns. They're very easy to learn.

Demonstrative Pronouns
Tagalog
this is my house
ito ay ang aking bahay Audio
that restaurant is far
restaurant na malayo Audio
these apples are delicious
mga mansanas ay masarap Audio
those stars are shiny
yaong mga bituin ay makintab Audio

I hope you learned a lot about the Tagalog grammar in this lesson. If you have any question about this lesson please contact me here. The next lesson is below, have fun!

Tagalog Phrases   Tagalog Phrases

Tagalog Vocabulary   Tagalog Vocabulary



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Inspirational Quote: First say to yourself what you would be; and then do what you have to do. Epictetus