Tagalog Grammar

Welcome to the 8th lesson about Tagalog grammar. We will first learn about prepositions, negation, questions, adverbs, and pronouns including: personal, object and possessive pronouns.

We will start with prepositions. In general, they are used to link words to other words. For example: I speak Tagalog and English the preposition is [and] because it connects both words Tagalog and English. The following is a list of the most used prepositions in Tagalog. To hear the pronunciation, just click on the sound icon.

andat Audio
abovesa itaas Audio
undersa ilalim Audio
beforebago Audio
afterpagkatapos Audio
in front ofsa harap ng Audio
behindsa likod ng Audio
far frommalayo mula sa Audio
nearmalapit sa Audio
insa Audio
insidesa loob Audio
outsidesa labas Audio
withkasama Audio
withouthindi kasama Audio
abouttungkol sa Audio
betweensa pagitan ng Audio
butpero Audio
forpara sa Audio
frommula sa Audio
tosa Audio

Preposition Grammar Rules

The following examples use prepositions in different ways and places to demonstrate how they behave in a sentence.

Prepositions + RulesTagalog
I eat without a knife
[preposition + noun]
kumakain ako nang walang kutsilyo Audio
she lives near the church
[verb + preposition]
siya ay nakatira malapit sa simbahan Audio
he is taller than her
[adjective + preposition]
mas matangkad siya kaysa sa kanya Audio
he came with his small dog
[preposition + pronoun]
siya ay dumating kasama ang kanyang maliit na aso Audio
can you come with me?
[preposition + pronoun]
puwede kang sumama sa akin? Audio

Negation in Tagalog

Now let's learn how to make a negative sentence (negation). For example: Saying no, I can't, I don't ... The following examples use negation in different ways and places to demonstrate how they behave in a sentence.

Negation + RulesTagalog
I understand you
[affirmative form]
nauunawaan kita Audio
I don't understand you
[negation + verb]
hindi kita maintindihan Audio
this is not the correct word
[negation + adjective]
hindi ito ang tamang salita Audio
don't leave me
[imperative negation]
huwag mo akong iwan Audio
no problem
[negation + noun]
walang problema Audio

Negative SentencesTagalog
I don't speak French
[negation + present tense]
hindi ako nagsasalita ng pranses Audio
she didn't visit Germany
[negation + past tense]
hindi siya ay bumisita sa alemanya Audio
he cannot see us
[negative modal verb]
hindi niya tayo nakikita Audio
can't she play chess?
[interrogative negation]
hindi ba siya naglalaro ng tses? Audio
we will not come late
[negation + future tense]
hindi kami darating nang leyt Audio

Questions in Tagalog

Now let's learn how to ask questions (interrogative). Such as: what, why, can you ...? Here are some common examples:

how?paano? Audio
what?ano? Audio
who?sino? Audio
why?bakit? Audio
where?saan? Audio

More of the interrogative form, now in a sentence:

Questions + RulesTagalog
where do you live?
[interrogative + verb]
saan ka nakatira? Audio
does she speak Chinese?
[interrogative verb]
siya ba ay nagsasalita ng tsino? Audio
how much is this?
[interrogative preposition]
magkano ito? Audio
can I help you?
[interrogative modal verb]
puwede ba kitang tulungan? Audio
what is your name?
[interrogative preposition]
ano ang pangalan mo? Audio

Adverbs in Tagalog

It's time to learn the adverbs in Tagalog. But what is an adverb? In general, adverbs modify verbs and adjectives. For example: You speak fast. The adverb is [fast] because it describes the verb and answers the question how do you speak?. Here is a list of the most common ones:

nowngayon Audio
yesterdaykahapon Audio
todayngayong araw Audio
tonightngayong gabi Audio
tomorrowbukas Audio
soonmalapit na Audio
quicklymabilis Audio
slowlydahan-dahan Audio
togethersama-sama Audio
verynapaka Audio
almosthalos Audio
alwayslagi Audio
usuallykaraniwan Audio
sometimeskung minsan Audio
rarelymadalang Audio
neverhindi kailanman Audio

The following examples use the adverbs in different ways and places to demonstrate how it behaves in a sentence.

Adverbs + RulesTagalog
do you understand me now?
[pronoun + adverb]
nauunawaan mo na ba ako ngayon? Audio
I need help immediately
[noun + adverb]
kailangan ko ng tulong agad Audio
she is very intelligent
[adverb + adjective]
napakatalino niya Audio
I will always love you
[verb + adverb]
lagi kitang iibigin Audio
can we learn German together?
[adverb in a question]
puwede ba nating sabay na aralin ang aleman? Audio

Pronouns in Tagalog

We're almost done! This time we will learn the pronouns in Tagalog. In general, a pronoun can be used instead of a noun. For example instead of saying my teacher speaks 3 languages, you can use the pronoun he, and say he speaks 3 languages. Here is a list of the most common ones:

Personal PronounsTagalog
Iako Audio
youikaw Audio
hesiya Audio
shesiya Audio
wekami Audio
theysila Audio

Object PronounsTagalog
meako Audio
youikaw Audio
himkanya Audio
herkanya Audio
uskami Audio
themkanila Audio

Possessive PronounsTagalog
myko Audio
youriyong Audio
hisang kanyang Audio
herang kanyang Audio
ourang aming Audio
theirang kanilang Audio

I think it's better to put the above example in a sentence to better assist you. The following examples use pronouns in different ways and places to demonstrate how they behave in a sentence. We will start with the personal pronouns.

Personal PronounsTagalog
I am your friend
[1st pronoun + verb]
ako ang iyong kaibigan Audio
you speak very fast
[2nd pronoun + adverb]
napakabilis mong magsalita Audio
he has three dogs
[3rd pronoun + verb]
meron siyang tatlong aso Audio
she can speak German
[3rd pronoun + verb]
maruong siyang magsalita ng aleman Audio
we will not come late
[1st plural pronoun]
hindi kami darating ng leyt Audio
they bought milk and bread
[3rd plural pronoun]
bumili sila ng gatas at tinapay Audio

The object pronoun is used as a target by a verb, and usually come after that verb. For example: I gave him my book. The object pronoun here is him. Here are more examples:

Object PronounsTagalog
can you tell me your name?
[1st object pronoun]
maaari mong sabihin sa akin ang iyong pangalan? Audio
I will give you money
[2nd object pronoun]
bibigyan kita ng pera Audio
she wrote him a letter
[3rd object pronoun]
gumawa siya ng sulat para sa kanya Audio
they visited her yesterday
[3rd object pronoun]
siya ay binisita nila kahapon Audio
can she help us?
[1st pl. object pronoun]
maaari niya ba tayong tulungan? Audio
he gave them food
[3rd pl. object pronoun]
sila ay binigyan niya ng pagkain Audio

Possessive PronounsTagalog
my name is Maya
[1st possessive pronoun]
ang pangalan ko ay maya Audio
your brother lives here
[2nd possessive pronoun]
ang iyong kapatid na lalaki ay nakatira dito Audio
her mother cooks for us
[3rd possessive pronoun]
ang kanyang ina ay nagluluto para sa amin Audio
his hobby is reading books
[3rd possessive pronoun]
pagbabasa ng libro ang kanyang libangan Audio
our dream is to visit Paris
[1st pl. possessive pronoun]
pangarap naming mabisita ang paris Audio
their house is not far
[3rd pl. possessive pronoun]
ang kanilang bahay ay hindi malayo Audio

One more thing you need to know is the demonstrative pronouns. They're very easy to learn.

Demonstrative PronounsTagalog
this is my houseito ay ang aking bahay Audio
that restaurant is farrestaurant na malayo Audio
these apples are deliciousmga mansanas ay masarap Audio
those stars are shinyyaong mga bituin ay makintab Audio

I hope you learned a lot about the Tagalog grammar in this lesson. If you have any question about this lesson please contact me here. The next lesson is below, have fun!

Tagalog Phrases       Tagalog Phrases

Tagalog Vocabulary       Tagalog Vocabulary

Inspirational Quote: First say to yourself what you would be; and then do what you have to do. Epictetus