Swedish Grammar

Welcome to the 8th lesson about Swedish grammar. We will first learn about prepositions, negation, questions, adverbs, and pronouns including: personal, object and possessive pronouns.

We will start with prepositions. In general, they are used to link words to other words. For example: I speak Swedish and English the preposition is [and] because it connects both words Swedish and English. The following is a list of the most used prepositions in Swedish.

Prepositions
Swedish
and
och Audio
above
ovanför Audio
under
under Audio
before
före, innan Audio
after
efter Audio
in front of
framför Audio
behind
bakom Audio
far from
långt från Audio
near
nära Audio
in
i Audio
inside
inuti Audio
outside
utanför Audio
with
med Audio
without
utan Audio
about
om Audio
between
mellan Audio
but
men Audio
for
för Audio
from
från Audio
to
till Audio

Preposition Grammar Rules

The following examples use prepositions in different ways and places to demonstrate how they behave in a sentence.

Prepositions + Rules
Swedish
I eat without a knife
[preposition + noun]
jag äter utan kniv Audio
she lives near the church
[verb + preposition]
hon bor nära kyrkan Audio
he is taller than her
[adjective + preposition]
han är längre än henne Audio
he came with his small dog
[preposition + pronoun]
han kom med sin lilla hund Audio
can you come with me?
[preposition + pronoun]
kan du följa med mig? Audio

Negation in Swedish

Now let's learn how to make a negative sentence (negation). For example: Saying no, I can't, I don't ... The following examples use negation in different ways and places to demonstrate how they behave in a sentence.

Negation + Rules
Swedish
I understand you
[affirmative form]
jag förstår dig Audio
I don't understand you
[negation + verb]
jag förstår inte dig Audio
this is not the correct word
[negation + adjective]
detta är inte det rätta ordet Audio
don't leave me
[imperative negation]
lämna mig inte Audio
no problem
[negation + noun]
inga problem Audio

Negative Sentences
Swedish
I don't speak French
[negation + present tense]
jag talar inte franska Audio
she didn't visit Germany
[negation + past tense]
hon besökte inte tyskland Audio
he cannot see us
[negative modal verb]
han kan inte se oss Audio
can't she play chess?
[interrogative negation]
kan hon inte spela schack? Audio
we will not come late
[negation + future tense]
vi kommer inte försent Audio

Questions in Swedish

Now let's learn how to ask questions (interrogative). Such as: what, why, can you ...? Here are some common examples:

English
Swedish
how?
hur? Audio
what?
vad? Audio
who?
vem? Audio
why?
varför? Audio
where?
var? Audio

More of the interrogative form, now in a sentence:

Questions + Rules
Swedish
where do you live?
[interrogative + verb]
var bor du? Audio
does she speak Chinese?
[interrogative verb]
talar hon kinesiska? Audio
how much is this?
[interrogative preposition]
hur mycket är detta? Audio
can I help you?
[interrogative modal verb]
kan jag hjälpa dig? Audio
what is your name?
[interrogative preposition]
vad heter du? Audio

Adverbs in Swedish

It's time to learn the adverbs in Swedish. But what is an adverb? In general, adverbs modify verbs and adjectives. For example: You speak fast. The adverb is [fast] because it describes the verb and answers the question how do you speak?. Here is a list of the most common ones:

Adverbs
Swedish
now
nu Audio
yesterday
i går Audio
today
i dag Audio
tonight
i kväll Audio
tomorrow
i morgon Audio
soon
snart Audio
quickly
snabbt Audio
slowly
långsamt Audio
together
tillsammans Audio
very
mycket Audio
almost
nästan Audio
always
alltid Audio
usually
vanligen Audio
sometimes
ibland Audio
rarely
sällan Audio
never
aldrig Audio

The following examples use the adverbs in different ways and places to demonstrate how it behaves in a sentence.

Adverbs + Rules
Swedish
do you understand me now?
[pronoun + adverb]
förstår du mig nu? Audio
I need help immediately
[noun + adverb]
jag behöver hjälp omedelbart Audio
she is very intelligent
[adverb + adjective]
hon är mycket intelligent Audio
I will always love you
[verb + adverb]
jag kommer alltid älska dig Audio
can we learn German together?
[adverb in a question]
kan vi inte studera tyska tillsammans? Audio

Pronouns in Swedish

We're almost done! This time we will learn the pronouns in Swedish. In general, a pronoun can be used instead of a noun. For example instead of saying my teacher speaks 3 languages, you can use the pronoun he, and say he speaks 3 languages. Here is a list of the most common ones:

Personal Pronouns
Swedish
I
jag Audio
you
du Audio
he
han Audio
she
hon Audio
we
vi Audio
they
de/dem Audio

Object Pronouns
Swedish
me
mig Audio
you
dig Audio
him
honom Audio
her
henne Audio
us
oss Audio
them
de/dem Audio

Possessive Pronouns
Swedish
my
min Audio
your
din Audio
his
hans Audio
her
hennes Audio
our
vår Audio
their
deras Audio

I think it's better to put the above example in a sentence to better assist you. The following examples use pronouns in different ways and places to demonstrate how they behave in a sentence. We will start with the personal pronouns.

Personal Pronouns
Swedish
I am your friend
[1st pronoun + verb]
jag är din vän Audio
you speak very fast
[2nd pronoun + adverb]
du pratar mycket snabbt Audio
he has three dogs
[3rd pronoun + verb]
han har tre hundar Audio
she can speak German
[3rd pronoun + verb]
hon kan tala tyska Audio
we will not come late
[1st plural pronoun]
vi kommer inte att komma sent Audio
they bought milk and bread
[3rd plural pronoun]
de köpte mjölk och bröd Audio

The object pronoun is used as a target by a verb, and usually come after that verb. For example: I gave him my book. The object pronoun here is him. Here are more examples:

Object Pronouns
Swedish
can you tell me your name?
[1st object pronoun]
vad heter du? Audio
I will give you money
[2nd object pronoun]
jag ska ge dig pengar Audio
she wrote him a letter
[3rd object pronoun]
hon skrev ett brev till honom Audio
they visited her yesterday
[3rd object pronoun]
de besökte henne i går Audio
can she help us?
[1st pl. object pronoun]
kan hon hjälpa oss? Audio
he gave them food
[3rd pl. object pronoun]
han gav dem mat Audio

Possessive Pronouns
Swedish
my name is Maya
[1st possessive pronoun]
mitt namn är maya Audio
your brother lives here
[2nd possessive pronoun]
din bror bor här Audio
her mother cooks for us
[3rd possessive pronoun]
hennes mor lagar mat till oss Audio
his hobby is reading books
[3rd possessive pronoun]
hans hobby är att läsa böcker Audio
our dream is to visit Paris
[1st pl. possessive pronoun]
vår dröm är att besöka paris Audio
their house is not far
[3rd pl. possessive pronoun]
deras hus ligger inte långt bort Audio

One more thing you need to know is the demonstrative pronouns. They're very easy to learn.

Demonstrative Pronouns
Swedish
this is my house
detta är mitt hus Audio
that restaurant is far
den restaurangen ligger långt bort Audio
these apples are delicious
dessa äpplen är läckra Audio
those stars are shiny
de stjärnorna är blanka Audio

I hope you learned a lot about the Swedish grammar in this lesson. If you have any question about this lesson please contact me here. The next lesson is below, have fun!

Swedish Phrases   Swedish Phrases

Swedish Vocabulary   Swedish Vocabulary



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Inspirational Quote: First say to yourself what you would be; and then do what you have to do. Epictetus