Slovak Grammar

Welcome to the 8th lesson about Slovak grammar. We will first learn about prepositions, negation, questions, adverbs, and pronouns including: personal, object and possessive pronouns.

We will start with prepositions. In general, they are used to link words to other words. For example: I speak Slovak and English the preposition is [and] because it connects both words Slovak and English. The following is a list of the most used prepositions in Slovak.

Prepositions
Slovak
and
a Audio
above
nad Audio
under
pod Audio
before
pred Audio
after
po Audio
in front of
pred Audio
behind
za Audio
far from
ďaleko od Audio
near
pri Audio
in
v Audio
inside
vnútri Audio
outside
mimo Audio
with
s Audio
without
bez Audio
about
o Audio
between
medzi Audio
but
ale Audio
for
pre Audio
from
od Audio
to
k Audio

Preposition Grammar Rules

The following examples use prepositions in different ways and places to demonstrate how they behave in a sentence.

Prepositions + Rules
Slovak
I eat without a knife
[preposition + noun]
jem bez noža Audio
she lives near the church
[verb + preposition]
býva pri kostole Audio
he is taller than her
[adjective + preposition]
je vyšší než ona Audio
he came with his small dog
[preposition + pronoun]
prišiel so svojím malým psom Audio
can you come with me?
[preposition + pronoun]
môžete ísť so mnou? Audio

Negation in Slovak

Now let's learn how to make a negative sentence (negation). For example: Saying no, I can't, I don't ... The following examples use negation in different ways and places to demonstrate how they behave in a sentence.

Negation + Rules
Slovak
I understand you
[affirmative form]
ja vám rozumiem Audio
I don't understand you
[negation + verb]
ja vám nerozumiem Audio
this is not the correct word
[negation + adjective]
nie je to správne slovo Audio
don't leave me
[imperative negation]
neopúšťaj ma Audio
no problem
[negation + noun]
nie je problém Audio

Negative Sentences
Slovak
I don't speak French
[negation + present tense]
nehovorím francúzsky Audio
she didn't visit Germany
[negation + past tense]
nenavštívila nemecko Audio
he cannot see us
[negative modal verb]
nevidí nás Audio
can't she play chess?
[interrogative negation]
nevie hrať šach? Audio
we will not come late
[negation + future tense]
neprídeme neskoro Audio

Questions in Slovak

Now let's learn how to ask questions (interrogative). Such as: what, why, can you ...? Here are some common examples:

English
Slovak
how?
ako? Audio
what?
čo? Audio
who?
kto? Audio
why?
prečo? Audio
where?
kde? Audio

More of the interrogative form, now in a sentence:

Questions + Rules
Slovak
where do you live?
[interrogative + verb]
kde bývaš? Audio
does she speak Chinese?
[interrogative verb]
hovorí ona čínsky? Audio
how much is this?
[interrogative preposition]
koľko to stojí? Audio
can I help you?
[interrogative modal verb]
môžem vám pomôcť? Audio
what is your name?
[interrogative preposition]
aké je vaše meno? Audio

Adverbs in Slovak

It's time to learn the adverbs in Slovak. But what is an adverb? In general, adverbs modify verbs and adjectives. For example: You speak fast. The adverb is [fast] because it describes the verb and answers the question how do you speak?. Here is a list of the most common ones:

Adverbs
Slovak
now
teraz Audio
yesterday
včera Audio
today
dnes Audio
tonight
dnes večer Audio
tomorrow
zajtra Audio
soon
čoskoro Audio
quickly
rýchlo Audio
slowly
pomaly Audio
together
spoločne Audio
very
veľmi Audio
almost
takmer Audio
always
vždy Audio
usually
zvyčajne Audio
sometimes
niekedy Audio
rarely
zriedka Audio
never
nikdy Audio

The following examples use the adverbs in different ways and places to demonstrate how it behaves in a sentence.

Adverbs + Rules
Slovak
do you understand me now?
[pronoun + adverb]
chápete ma už? Audio
I need help immediately
[noun + adverb]
potrebujem pomoc okamžite Audio
she is very intelligent
[adverb + adjective]
je veľmi inteligentná Audio
I will always love you
[verb + adverb]
ja ťa budem vždy milovať Audio
can we learn German together?
[adverb in a question]
môžeme sa učiť spolu nemecky? Audio

Pronouns in Slovak

We're almost done! This time we will learn the pronouns in Slovak. In general, a pronoun can be used instead of a noun. For example instead of saying my teacher speaks 3 languages, you can use the pronoun he, and say he speaks 3 languages. Here is a list of the most common ones:

Personal Pronouns
Slovak
I
ja Audio
you
ty/vy Audio
he
on Audio
she
ona Audio
we
my Audio
they
oni Audio

Object Pronouns
Slovak
me
mňa/mne Audio
you
teba/vás/tebe/vám Audio
him
jeho/jemu Audio
her
ju/jej Audio
us
nás/nám Audio
them
ich/im Audio

Possessive Pronouns
Slovak
my
môj Audio
your
tvoj Audio
his
jeho Audio
her
jej Audio
our
náš Audio
their
ich Audio

I think it's better to put the above example in a sentence to better assist you. The following examples use pronouns in different ways and places to demonstrate how they behave in a sentence. We will start with the personal pronouns.

Personal Pronouns
Slovak
I am your friend
[1st pronoun + verb]
som tvoj priateľ Audio
you speak very fast
[2nd pronoun + adverb]
hovoríte veľmi rýchlo Audio
he has three dogs
[3rd pronoun + verb]
má tri psy Audio
she can speak German
[3rd pronoun + verb]
vie hovoriť nemecky Audio
we will not come late
[1st plural pronoun]
neprídeme neskoro Audio
they bought milk and bread
[3rd plural pronoun]
kúpili mlieko a chlieb Audio

The object pronoun is used as a target by a verb, and usually come after that verb. For example: I gave him my book. The object pronoun here is him. Here are more examples:

Object Pronouns
Slovak
can you tell me your name?
[1st object pronoun]
môžete mi povedať svoje meno? Audio
I will give you money
[2nd object pronoun]
dám vám peniaze Audio
she wrote him a letter
[3rd object pronoun]
napísala mu list Audio
they visited her yesterday
[3rd object pronoun]
oni ju navštívili včera Audio
can she help us?
[1st pl. object pronoun]
môže nám pomôcť? Audio
he gave them food
[3rd pl. object pronoun]
dal im jedlo Audio

Possessive Pronouns
Slovak
my name is Maya
[1st possessive pronoun]
volám sa maya Audio
your brother lives here
[2nd possessive pronoun]
tvoj brat žije tu Audio
her mother cooks for us
[3rd possessive pronoun]
jej matka nám varí Audio
his hobby is reading books
[3rd possessive pronoun]
jeho koníčkom je čítanie kníh Audio
our dream is to visit Paris
[1st pl. possessive pronoun]
naším snom je navštíviť paríž Audio
their house is not far
[3rd pl. possessive pronoun]
ich dom je neďaleko Audio

One more thing you need to know is the demonstrative pronouns. They're very easy to learn.

Demonstrative Pronouns
Slovak
this is my house
to je môj dom Audio
that restaurant is far
tá reštaurácia je ďaleko Audio
these apples are delicious
tieto jablká sú výborné Audio
those stars are shiny
tie hviezdy sú žiarivé Audio

I hope you learned a lot about the Slovak grammar in this lesson. If you have any question about this lesson please contact me here. The next lesson is below, have fun!

Slovak Phrases   Slovak Phrases

Slovak Vocabulary   Slovak Vocabulary



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Inspirational Quote: First say to yourself what you would be; and then do what you have to do. Epictetus