Marathi Grammar

Welcome to the 8th lesson about Marathi grammar. We will first learn about prepositions, negation, questions, adverbs, and pronouns including: personal, object and possessive pronouns. To hear the pronunciation, just click on the sound icon.

We will start with prepositions. In general, they are used to link words to other words. For example: I speak Marathi and English the preposition is [and] because it connects both words Marathi and English. The following is a list of the most used prepositions in Marathi.

Prepositions Marathi Pronunciation
and आणि [aaNi] Audio
above वर [var] Audio
under खाली [khaali] Audio
before आधी [aadhi] Audio
after नंतर [nantar] Audio
in front of च्या समोर [chyaa samor] Audio
behind मागे [maage] Audio
far from पासून खूपच दूर [paasun khoopach door] Audio
near जवळ [javaL] Audio
in आत [aat] Audio
inside आतल्या बाजूला [aatlyaa baajulaa] Audio
outside बाहेरच्या बाजूला [baaherchyaa baajulaa] Audio
with सोबत [sobat] Audio
without शिवाय, वगळून [shivaay, vagaLoon] Audio
about विषयी [viShayi] Audio
between मध्ये [madhye] Audio
but पण, परंतु [paN, parantu] Audio
for साठी [saaThi] Audio
from पासून [paasun] Audio
to कडे [kaDe] Audio

Preposition Grammar Rules

The following examples use prepositions in different ways and places to demonstrate how they behave in a sentence.

Prepositions + Rules Marathi + Pronunciation
I eat without a knife
[preposition + noun]
मी सुरीशिवाय खातो Audio
[mi surishivaay khaato]
she lives near the church
[verb + preposition]
ती चर्चच्या जवळ राहाते Audio
[ti charchachyaa javaL raahaate]
he is taller than her
[adjective + preposition]
तो तिच्यापेक्षा उंच आहे Audio
[to tichyaapekShaa unch aahe]
he came with his small dog
[preposition + pronoun]
तो त्याच्या छोट्या कुत्र्यासोबत आला Audio
[to tyaachyaa chhoTyaa kutryaasobat aalaa]
can you come with me?
[preposition + pronoun]
तुम्ही माझ्यासोबत येऊ शकाल काय? Audio
[tumhi maajhyaasobat yeoo shakaal kaay?]

Negation in Marathi

Now let's learn how to make a negative sentence (negation). For example: Saying no, I can't, I don't ... The following examples use negation in different ways and places to demonstrate how they behave in a sentence.

Negation + Rules Marathi + Pronunciation
I understand you
[affirmative form]
तुम्ही काय म्हणता ते मला समजते Audio
[tumhi kaay mhaNataa te malaa samajte]
I don't understand you
[negation + verb]
तुम्ही काय म्हणता ते मला समजत नाही Audio
[tumhi kaay mhaNataa te malaa samjat naahi]
this is not the correct word
[negation + adjective]
हा अचूक शब्द नाही Audio
[haa achook shabda naahi]
don't leave me
[imperative negation]
मला सोडून जाऊ नका Audio
[malaa sodoon jaaoo nakaa]
no problem
[negation + noun]
कांही हरकत नाही Audio
[kaanhi harkat naahi]

Negative Sentences Marathi + Pronunciation
I don't speak French
[negation + present tense]
मला फ्रेन्च बोलता येत नाही Audio
[malaa french boltaa yet naahi]
she didn't visit Germany
[negation + past tense]
ती जर्मनीला गेली नाही Audio
[ti jarmanilaa geli naahi]
he cannot see us
[negative modal verb]
तो आपल्याला पाहू शकत नाही Audio
[to aaplyaalaa paahoo shakat naahi]
can't she play chess?
[interrogative negation]
ती बुद्धिबळ खेळू शकत नाही काय? Audio
[ti buddhibaL kheLoo shakat naahi kaay?]
we will not come late
[negation + future tense]
आम्हाला उशीर होणार नाही Audio
[aamhaalaa usheer hoNaar naahi]

Questions in Marathi

Now let's learn how to ask questions (interrogative). Such as: what, why, can you ...? Here are some common examples:

English Marathi Pronunciation
how? कसे? [kase?] Audio
what? काय? [kaay?] Audio
who? कोण? [koN?] Audio
why? का? [kaa?] Audio
where? कुठे? [kuThe?] Audio

More of the interrogative form, now in a sentence:

Questions + Rules Marathi + Pronunciation
where do you live?
[interrogative + verb]
तुम्ही कुठे राहाता? Audio
[tumhi kuThe raahaataa?]
does she speak Chinese?
[interrogative verb]
तिला चिनी बोलता येते काय? Audio
[tilaa chini boltaa yete kaay?]
how much is this?
[interrogative preposition]
याची किंमत किती? Audio
[yaachi kimmat kiti?]
can I help you?
[interrogative modal verb]
मी तुम्हाला मदत करू शकतो काय? Audio
[mi tumhaalaa madat karu shakto kaay?]
what is your name?
[interrogative preposition]
तुमचे नांव काय? Audio
[tumche naanv kaay?]

Adverbs in Marathi

It's time to learn the adverbs in Marathi. But what is an adverb? In general, adverbs modify verbs and adjectives. For example: You speak fast. The adverb is [fast] because it describes the verb and answers the question how do you speak?. Here is a list of the most common ones:

Adverbs Marathi Pronunciation
now आता [aataa] Audio
yesterday काल [kaal] Audio
today आज [aaj] Audio
tonight आज रात्री [aaj raatri] Audio
tomorrow उद्या [udyaa] Audio
soon लवकरच [lavakarach] Audio
quickly त्वरेने [tvarene] Audio
slowly सावकाश [saavkaash] Audio
together एकत्र [ekatra] Audio
very अत्यंत [atyant] Audio
almost जवळजवळ [javaLjavaL] Audio
always नेहमी [nehmi] Audio
usually सामान्यत: [saamaanyatahaa] Audio
sometimes कधीकधी [kadhikadhi] Audio
rarely क्वचित [kvachit] Audio
never कधीच नाही [kadhich naahi] Audio

The following examples use the adverbs in different ways and places to demonstrate how it behaves in a sentence.

Adverbs + Rules Marathi + Pronunciation
do you understand me now?
[pronoun + adverb]
मी काय म्हणतो ते आता तुम्हाला समजते काय? Audio
[mi kaay mhaNato te aataa tumhaalaa samajte kaay?]
I need help immediately
[noun + adverb]
मला मदतीची ताबडतोब आवश्यकता आहे Audio
[malaa madatichi taabaDtob aavashyakataa aahe]
she is very intelligent
[adverb + adjective]
ती खूप बुद्धिमान आहे Audio
[ti khoop buddhimaan aahe]
I will always love you
[verb + adverb]
माझे तुमच्यावर नेहमीच प्रेम असेल Audio
[maajhe tumchyaavar nehmich prem asel]
can we learn German together?
[adverb in a question]
आपण एकत्र जर्मन शिकू शकू काय? Audio
[aapaN ekatra jarman shikoo shakoo kaay?]

Pronouns in Marathi

We're almost done! This time we will learn the pronouns in Marathi. In general, a pronoun can be used instead of a noun. For example instead of saying my teacher speaks 3 languages, you can use the pronoun he, and say he speaks 3 languages. Here is a list of the most common ones:

Personal Pronouns Marathi Pronunciation
I मी [mi] Audio
you तू / तुम्ही [too / tumhi] Audio
he तो [to] Audio
she ती [ti] Audio
we आम्ही / आपण [aamhi / aapaN] Audio
they ते, त्या, ती [te, tyaa, ti] Audio

Object Pronouns Marathi Pronunciation
me मला [malaa] Audio
you तुला / तुम्हाला [tulaa / tumhaalaa] Audio
him त्याला [tyaalaa] Audio
her तिला [tilaa] Audio
us आम्हाला / आपल्याला [aamhaalaa / aaplyaalaa] Audio
them त्यांना [tyaannaa] Audio

Possessive Pronouns Marathi Pronunciation
my माझा, माझे, माझी [maajhaa, maajhe, maajhi] Audio
your तुझा,तुझी, तुझे, तुमचे, तुमची, तुमचा [tujhaa,tujhi, tujhe, tumche, tumchi, tumchaa] Audio
his त्याचे, त्याचा, त्याची [tyaache, tyaachaa, tyaachi] Audio
her तिचा, तिचे, तिची [tichaa, tiche, tichi] Audio
our आमचे, आमचा, आमची, आपले, आपला, आपली [aamche, aamchaa, aamchi, aaple, aaplaa, aapli] Audio
their त्यांचे, त्यांचा, त्यांची [tyaanche, tyaanchaa, tyaanchi] Audio

I think it's better to put the above example in a sentence to better assist you. The following examples use pronouns in different ways and places to demonstrate how they behave in a sentence. We will start with the personal pronouns.

Personal Pronouns Marathi + Pronunciation
I am your friend
[1st pronoun + verb]
मी तुमचा मित्र आहे Audio
[mi tumchaa mitra aahe]
you speak very fast
[2nd pronoun + adverb]
तुम्ही खूपच जलद बोलता Audio
[tumhi khoopach jalad boltaa]
he has three dogs
[3rd pronoun + verb]
त्याच्याकडे तीन कुत्रे आहेत Audio
[tyaachyaakaDe teen kutre aahet]
she can speak German
[3rd pronoun + verb]
ती जर्मन बोलू शकते Audio
[ti jarman boloo shakte]
we will not come late
[1st plural pronoun]
आम्हाला उशीर होणार नाही Audio
[aamhaalaa ushir hoNaar naahi]
they bought milk and bread
[3rd plural pronoun]
त्यांनी दूध आणि ब्रेड विकत घेतले Audio
[tyaanni doodh aaNi breD vikat ghetle]

The object pronoun is used as a target by a verb, and usually come after that verb. For example: I gave him my book. The object pronoun here is him. Here are more examples:

Object Pronouns Marathi + Pronunciation
can you tell me your name?
[1st object pronoun]
तुम्ही मला तुमचे नांव सांगू शकाल काय? Audio
[tumhi malaa tumche naanv saangoo shkaal kaay?]
I will give you money
[2nd object pronoun]
मी तुम्हाला पैसे देईन Audio
[mi tumhaalaa paise dein]
she wrote him a letter
[3rd object pronoun]
तिने त्याला पत्र लिहिले Audio
[tine tyaalaa patra lihile]
they visited her yesterday
[3rd object pronoun]
ते तिच्याकडे काल गेले होते Audio
[te tichyaakaDe kaal gele hote]
can she help us?
[1st pl. object pronoun]
ती आम्हाला मदत करू शकेल काय? Audio
[ti aamhaalaa madat karoo shakel kaay?]
he gave them food
[3rd pl. object pronoun]
त्याने त्यांना अन्न दिले Audio
[tyaane tyaannaa anna dile]

Possessive Pronouns Marathi + Pronunciation
my name is Maya
[1st possessive pronoun]
माझे नांव माया आहे Audio
[maajhe naanv maayaa aahe]
your brother lives here
[2nd possessive pronoun]
तुमचा भाऊ इथे राहातो Audio
[tumchaa bhaaoo ithe raahaato]
her mother cooks for us
[3rd possessive pronoun]
तिची आई आमच्यासाठी स्वयंपाक करते Audio
[tichi aai aamchyaasaaThi svayampaak karte]
his hobby is reading books
[3rd possessive pronoun]
पुस्तके वाचणे हा त्याचा छंद आहे Audio
[pustake vaachNe haa tyaachaa chhand aahe]
our dream is to visit Paris
[1st pl. possessive pronoun]
पॅरिसला भेट देणे हे आमचे स्वप्न आहे Audio
[parislaa bheT deNe he aamche svapna aahe]
their house is not far
[3rd pl. possessive pronoun]
त्यांचे घर फार दूर नाही Audio
[tyaanche ghar phaar door naahi]

One more thing you need to know is the demonstrative pronouns. They're very easy to learn.

Demonstrative Pronouns Marathi Pronunciation
this is my house हे माझे घर आहे [he maajhe ghar aahe] Audio
that restaurant is far ते उपाहारगृह दूर आहे [te upaahaargruh door aahe] Audio
these apples are delicious ही सफरचंदे छान आहेत [hi sapharchande chahan aahet] Audio
those stars are shiny ते तारे चमकदार आहेत [te taare chamakdaar aahet] Audio

I hope you learned a lot about the Marathi grammar in this lesson. If you have any question about this lesson please contact me here. The next lesson is below, have fun!

Marathi Phrases       Marathi Phrases

Marathi Vocabulary       Marathi Vocabulary


Inspirational Quote: First say to yourself what you would be; and then do what you have to do. Epictetus

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