Lithuanian Grammar

Welcome to the 8th lesson about Lithuanian grammar. We will first learn about prepositions, negation, questions, adverbs, and pronouns including: personal, object and possessive pronouns.

We will start with prepositions. In general, they are used to link words to other words. For example: I speak Lithuanian and English the preposition is [and] because it connects both words Lithuanian and English. The following is a list of the most used prepositions in Lithuanian.

Prepositions
Lithuanian
and
ir Audio
above
aukščiau Audio
under
pagal Audio
before
prieš Audio
after
po Audio
in front of
priešais Audio
behind
Audio
far from
toli nuo Audio
near
šalia Audio
in
į Audio
inside
viduje Audio
outside
Audio
with
su Audio
without
be Audio
about
apie Audio
between
tarp Audio
but
bet Audio
for
Audio
from
nuo Audio
to
į Audio

Preposition Grammar Rules

The following examples use prepositions in different ways and places to demonstrate how they behave in a sentence.

Prepositions + Rules
Lithuanian
I eat without a knife
[preposition + noun]
valgau be peilio Audio
she lives near the church
[verb + preposition]
ji gyvena netoli bažnyčios Audio
he is taller than her
[adjective + preposition]
jis yra aukštesnis už ją Audio
he came with his small dog
[preposition + pronoun]
jis atėjo su savo šuniuku Audio
can you come with me?
[preposition + pronoun]
ar galite eiti su manimi? Audio

Negation in Lithuanian

Now let's learn how to make a negative sentence (negation). For example: Saying no, I can't, I don't ... The following examples use negation in different ways and places to demonstrate how they behave in a sentence.

Negation + Rules
Lithuanian
I understand you
[affirmative form]
aš jus suprantu Audio
I don't understand you
[negation + verb]
aš jūsų nesuprantu Audio
this is not the correct word
[negation + adjective]
tai nėra teisingas žodis Audio
don't leave me
[imperative negation]
nepalikite manęs Audio
no problem
[negation + noun]
jokių problemų Audio

Negative Sentences
Lithuanian
I don't speak French
[negation + present tense]
aš nekalbu prancūziškai Audio
she didn't visit Germany
[negation + past tense]
ji nesilankė vokietijoje Audio
he cannot see us
[negative modal verb]
jis mūsų nemato Audio
can't she play chess?
[interrogative negation]
ji nemoka žaisti šachmatais? Audio
we will not come late
[negation + future tense]
mes nepavėluosime Audio

Questions in Lithuanian

Now let's learn how to ask questions (interrogative). Such as: what, why, can you ...? Here are some common examples:

English
Lithuanian
how?
kaip? Audio
what?
kas? Audio
who?
kas? Audio
why?
kodėl? Audio
where?
kur? Audio

More of the interrogative form, now in a sentence:

Questions + Rules
Lithuanian
where do you live?
[interrogative + verb]
kur jūs gyvenate? Audio
does she speak Chinese?
[interrogative verb]
ar ji kalba kiniškai? Audio
how much is this?
[interrogative preposition]
kiek tai yra? Audio
can I help you?
[interrogative modal verb]
ar galiu jums padėti? Audio
what is your name?
[interrogative preposition]
kuo jūs vardu? Audio

Adverbs in Lithuanian

It's time to learn the adverbs in Lithuanian. But what is an adverb? In general, adverbs modify verbs and adjectives. For example: You speak fast. The adverb is [fast] because it describes the verb and answers the question how do you speak?. Here is a list of the most common ones:

Adverbs
Lithuanian
now
dabar Audio
yesterday
vakar Audio
today
šiandien Audio
tonight
šįvakar Audio
tomorrow
rytoj Audio
soon
greit Audio
quickly
greitai Audio
slowly
lėtai Audio
together
kartu Audio
very
labai Audio
almost
beveik Audio
always
visada Audio
usually
paprastai Audio
sometimes
kartais Audio
rarely
retai Audio
never
niekada Audio

The following examples use the adverbs in different ways and places to demonstrate how it behaves in a sentence.

Adverbs + Rules
Lithuanian
do you understand me now?
[pronoun + adverb]
ardabar jūs mane suprantate? Audio
I need help immediately
[noun + adverb]
man tučtuojau reikia pagalbos Audio
she is very intelligent
[adverb + adjective]
ji yra labai protinga Audio
I will always love you
[verb + adverb]
aš visada tave mylėsiu Audio
can we learn German together?
[adverb in a question]
ar galime kartu mokytis vokiškai? Audio

Pronouns in Lithuanian

We're almost done! This time we will learn the pronouns in Lithuanian. In general, a pronoun can be used instead of a noun. For example instead of saying my teacher speaks 3 languages, you can use the pronoun he, and say he speaks 3 languages. Here is a list of the most common ones:

Personal Pronouns
Lithuanian
I
Audio
you
tu/jūs Audio
he
jis Audio
she
ji Audio
we
mes Audio
they
jie/jos Audio

Object Pronouns
Lithuanian
me
man/mane Audio
you
jums/jus/tau/tave Audio
him
jį/jam/juo Audio
her
ją/jai/ja Audio
us
mus/mums Audio
them
jų/juos/jiems/joms Audio

Possessive Pronouns
Lithuanian
my
mano/savo Audio
your
tavo/savo Audio
his
jo/savo Audio
her
jos/savo Audio
our
mūsų/savo Audio
their
jų/savo Audio

I think it's better to put the above example in a sentence to better assist you. The following examples use pronouns in different ways and places to demonstrate how they behave in a sentence. We will start with the personal pronouns.

Personal Pronouns
Lithuanian
I am your friend
[1st pronoun + verb]
aš esu tavo draugas Audio
you speak very fast
[2nd pronoun + adverb]
kalbate labai greitai Audio
he has three dogs
[3rd pronoun + verb]
jis turi tris šunis Audio
she can speak German
[3rd pronoun + verb]
ji moka vokiškai Audio
we will not come late
[1st plural pronoun]
mes nepavėluosime Audio
they bought milk and bread
[3rd plural pronoun]
jie nusipirko pieno ir duonos Audio

The object pronoun is used as a target by a verb, and usually come after that verb. For example: I gave him my book. The object pronoun here is him. Here are more examples:

Object Pronouns
Lithuanian
can you tell me your name?
[1st object pronoun]
ar galite man pasakyti savo vardą? Audio
I will give you money
[2nd object pronoun]
aš duosiu jums pinigų Audio
she wrote him a letter
[3rd object pronoun]
ji parašė jam laišką Audio
they visited her yesterday
[3rd object pronoun]
jie aplankė ją vakar Audio
can she help us?
[1st pl. object pronoun]
ji gali mums padėti? Audio
he gave them food
[3rd pl. object pronoun]
jis jiems davė maisto Audio

Possessive Pronouns
Lithuanian
my name is Maya
[1st possessive pronoun]
mano vardas maya Audio
your brother lives here
[2nd possessive pronoun]
tavo brolis gyvena čia Audio
her mother cooks for us
[3rd possessive pronoun]
jos mama mums verda Audio
his hobby is reading books
[3rd possessive pronoun]
jo hobis - skaityti knygas Audio
our dream is to visit Paris
[1st pl. possessive pronoun]
mūsų svajonė - aplankyti paryžių Audio
their house is not far
[3rd pl. possessive pronoun]
jų namas netoli Audio

One more thing you need to know is the demonstrative pronouns. They're very easy to learn.

Demonstrative Pronouns
Lithuanian
this is my house
tai mano namas Audio
that restaurant is far
tas restoranas toli Audio
these apples are delicious
šie obuoliai skanūs Audio
those stars are shiny
tos žvaigždės spindi Audio

I hope you learned a lot about the Lithuanian grammar in this lesson. If you have any question about this lesson please contact me here. The next lesson is below, have fun!

Lithuanian Phrases   Lithuanian Phrases

Lithuanian Vocabulary   Lithuanian Vocabulary



Share

Inspirational Quote: First say to yourself what you would be; and then do what you have to do. Epictetus