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Lithuanian Grammar

Welcome to the 8th lesson about Lithuanian grammar. We will first learn about prepositions, negation, questions, adverbs, and pronouns including: personal, object and possessive pronouns.

We will start with prepositions. In general, they are used to link words to other words. For example: I speak Lithuanian and English the preposition is [and] because it connects both words Lithuanian and English. The following is a list of the most used prepositions in Lithuanian.

Prepositions - Lithuanian
and ir Audio
above aukščiau Audio
under pagal Audio
before prieš Audio
after po Audio
in front of priešais Audio
far from toli nuo Audio
near šalia Audio
in į Audio
inside viduje Audio
with su Audio
without be Audio
about apie Audio
between tarp Audio
but bet Audio
from nuo Audio
to į Audio

Preposition Grammar Rules

The following examples use prepositions in different ways and places to demonstrate how they behave in a sentence.

Prepositions + Rules - Lithuanian
I eat without a knife
[preposition + noun] valgau be peilio Audio
she lives near the church
[verb + preposition] ji gyvena netoli bažnyčios Audio
he is taller than her
[adjective + preposition] jis yra aukštesnis už ją Audio
he came with his small dog
[preposition + pronoun] jis atėjo su savo šuniuku Audio
can you come with me?
[preposition + pronoun] ar galite eiti su manimi? Audio

Negation in Lithuanian

Now let's learn how to make a negative sentence (negation). For example: Saying no, I can't, I don't ... The following examples use negation in different ways and places to demonstrate how they behave in a sentence.

Negation + Rules - Lithuanian
I understand you
[affirmative form] aš jus suprantu Audio
I don't understand you
[negation + verb] aš jūsų nesuprantu Audio
this is not the correct word
[negation + adjective] tai nėra teisingas žodis Audio
don't leave me
[imperative negation] nepalikite manęs Audio
no problem
[negation + noun] jokių problemų Audio

Negative Sentences - Lithuanian
I don't speak French
[negation + present tense] aš nekalbu prancūziškai Audio
she didn't visit Germany
[negation + past tense] ji nesilankė vokietijoje Audio
he cannot see us
[negative modal verb] jis mūsų nemato Audio
can't she play chess?
[interrogative negation] ji nemoka žaisti šachmatais? Audio
we will not come late
[negation + future tense] mes nepavėluosime Audio

Questions in Lithuanian

Now let's learn how to ask questions (interrogative). Such as: what, why, can you ...? Here are some common examples:

English - Lithuanian
how? kaip? Audio
what? kas? Audio
who? kas? Audio
why? kodėl? Audio
where? kur? Audio

More of the interrogative form, now in a sentence:

Questions + Rules - Lithuanian
where do you live?
[interrogative + verb] kur jūs gyvenate? Audio
does she speak Chinese?
[interrogative verb] ar ji kalba kiniškai? Audio
how much is this?
[interrogative preposition] kiek tai yra? Audio
can I help you?
[interrogative modal verb] ar galiu jums padėti? Audio
what is your name?
[interrogative preposition] kuo jūs vardu? Audio

Adverbs in Lithuanian

It's time to learn the adverbs in Lithuanian. But what is an adverb? In general, adverbs modify verbs and adjectives. For example: You speak fast. The adverb is [fast] because it describes the verb and answers the question how do you speak?. Here is a list of the most common ones:

Adverbs - Lithuanian
now dabar Audio
yesterday vakar Audio
today šiandien Audio
tonight šįvakar Audio
tomorrow rytoj Audio
soon greit Audio
quickly greitai Audio
slowly lėtai Audio
together kartu Audio
very labai Audio
almost beveik Audio
always visada Audio
usually paprastai Audio
sometimes kartais Audio
rarely retai Audio
never niekada Audio

The following examples use the adverbs in different ways and places to demonstrate how it behaves in a sentence.

Adverbs + Rules - Lithuanian
do you understand me now?
[pronoun + adverb] ardabar jūs mane suprantate? Audio
I need help immediately
[noun + adverb] man tučtuojau reikia pagalbos Audio
she is very intelligent
[adverb + adjective] ji yra labai protinga Audio
I will always love you
[verb + adverb] aš visada tave mylėsiu Audio
can we learn German together?
[adverb in a question] ar galime kartu mokytis vokiškai? Audio

Pronouns in Lithuanian

We're almost done! This time we will learn the pronouns in Lithuanian. In general, a pronoun can be used instead of a noun. For example instead of saying my teacher speaks 3 languages, you can use the pronoun he, and say he speaks 3 languages. Here is a list of the most common ones:

Personal Pronouns - Lithuanian
you tu/jūs Audio
he jis Audio
she ji Audio
we mes Audio
they jie/jos Audio

Object Pronouns - Lithuanian
me man/mane Audio
you jums/jus/tau/tave Audio
him jį/jam/juo Audio
her ją/jai/ja Audio
us mus/mums Audio
them jų/juos/jiems/joms Audio

Possessive Pronouns - Lithuanian
my mano/savo Audio
your tavo/savo Audio
his jo/savo Audio
her jos/savo Audio
our mūsų/savo Audio
their jų/savo Audio

I think it's better to put the above example in a sentence to better assist you. The following examples use pronouns in different ways and places to demonstrate how they behave in a sentence. We will start with the personal pronouns.

Personal Pronouns - Lithuanian
I am your friend
[1st pronoun + verb] aš esu tavo draugas Audio
you speak very fast
[2nd pronoun + adverb] kalbate labai greitai Audio
he has three dogs
[3rd pronoun + verb] jis turi tris šunis Audio
she can speak German
[3rd pronoun + verb] ji moka vokiškai Audio
we will not come late
[1st plural pronoun] mes nepavėluosime Audio
they bought milk and bread
[3rd plural pronoun] jie nusipirko pieno ir duonos Audio

The object pronoun is used as a target by a verb, and usually come after that verb. For example: I gave him my book. The object pronoun here is him. Here are more examples:

Object Pronouns - Lithuanian
can you tell me your name?
[1st object pronoun] ar galite man pasakyti savo vardą? Audio
I will give you money
[2nd object pronoun] aš duosiu jums pinigų Audio
she wrote him a letter
[3rd object pronoun] ji parašė jam laišką Audio
they visited her yesterday
[3rd object pronoun] jie aplankė ją vakar Audio
can she help us?
[1st pl. object pronoun] ji gali mums padėti? Audio
he gave them food
[3rd pl. object pronoun] jis jiems davė maisto Audio

Possessive Pronouns - Lithuanian
my name is Maya
[1st possessive pronoun] mano vardas maya Audio
your brother lives here
[2nd possessive pronoun] tavo brolis gyvena čia Audio
her mother cooks for us
[3rd possessive pronoun] jos mama mums verda Audio
his hobby is reading books
[3rd possessive pronoun] jo hobis - skaityti knygas Audio
our dream is to visit Paris
[1st pl. possessive pronoun] mūsų svajonė - aplankyti paryžių Audio
their house is not far
[3rd pl. possessive pronoun] jų namas netoli Audio

One more thing you need to know is the demonstrative pronouns. They're very easy to learn.

Demonstrative Pronouns - Lithuanian
this is my house tai mano namas Audio
that restaurant is far tas restoranas toli Audio
these apples are delicious šie obuoliai skanūs Audio
those stars are shiny tos žvaigždės spindi Audio

I hope you learned a lot about the Lithuanian grammar in this lesson. Please check out our main menu here for more lessons: homepage. The next lesson is below, have fun!

Inspirational Quote: First say to yourself what you would be; and then do what you have to do. Epictetus

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