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Kazakh Grammar

Welcome to the 8th lesson about Kazakh grammar. We will first learn about prepositions, negation, questions, adverbs, and pronouns including: personal, object and possessive pronouns.

We will start with prepositions. In general, they are used to link words to other words. For example: I speak Kazakh and English the preposition is [and] because it connects both words Kazakh and English. The following is a list of the most used prepositions in Kazakh.

Prepositions - Kazakh
and және Audio
above жоғарыда Audio
under төменде Audio
before дейін Audio
after кейін Audio
in front of алдында Audio
behind артында Audio
far from алыста Audio
near жақында Audio
in Audio
inside ішінде Audio
outside сыртында Audio
with бірге Audio
without Audio
about Audio
between арасында Audio
but бірақ Audio
for үшін Audio
from Audio
to Audio

Preposition Grammar Rules

The following examples use prepositions in different ways and places to demonstrate how they behave in a sentence.

Prepositions + Rules - Kazakh
I eat without a knife
[preposition + noun] мен тамақты пышақсыз жеймін Audio
she lives near the church
[verb + preposition] ол шіркеу жанында тұрады Audio
he is taller than her
[adjective + preposition] оның бойын одан ұзынырақ Audio
he came with his small dog
[preposition + pronoun] ол өзінің кішкентай итімен келді Audio
can you come with me?
[preposition + pronoun] сіз менімен бірге бара аласыз ба? Audio

Negation in Kazakh

Now let's learn how to make a negative sentence (negation). For example: Saying no, I can't, I don't ... The following examples use negation in different ways and places to demonstrate how they behave in a sentence.

Negation + Rules - Kazakh
I understand you
[affirmative form] мен сізді түсіндім Audio
I don't understand you
[negation + verb] мен сізді түсінбедім Audio
this is not the correct word
[negation + adjective] бұл сөз дұрыс емес Audio
don't leave me
[imperative negation] мені жалғыз тастап кетпеңізші Audio
no problem
[negation + noun] Audio

Negative Sentences - Kazakh
I don't speak French
[negation + present tense] мен французша сөйлемеймін Audio
she didn't visit Germany
[negation + past tense] ол Германияға барған емес Audio
he cannot see us
[negative modal verb] ол бізді көрмей тұр Audio
can't she play chess?
[interrogative negation] ол шахмат ойнай алады ма? Audio
we will not come late
[negation + future tense] біз кеш келмейміз Audio

Questions in Kazakh

Now let's learn how to ask questions (interrogative). Such as: what, why, can you ...? Here are some common examples:

English - Kazakh
how? қалай? Audio
what? не? Audio
who? кім? Audio
why? неге? Audio
where? қайда? Audio

More of the interrogative form, now in a sentence:

Questions + Rules - Kazakh
where do you live?
[interrogative + verb] сіз қай жерде тұрасыз? Audio
does she speak Chinese?
[interrogative verb] ол қытайша сөйлейді ме? Audio
how much is this?
[interrogative preposition] бұл қанша тұрады? Audio
can I help you?
[interrogative modal verb] сізге көмектесейін бе? Audio
what is your name?
[interrogative preposition] есіміңіз кім? Audio

Adverbs in Kazakh

It's time to learn the adverbs in Kazakh. But what is an adverb? In general, adverbs modify verbs and adjectives. For example: You speak fast. The adverb is [fast] because it describes the verb and answers the question how do you speak?. Here is a list of the most common ones:

Adverbs - Kazakh
now қазір Audio
yesterday кеше Audio
today бүгін Audio
tonight бүгін кешке Audio
tomorrow ертең Audio
soon жақын арада Audio
quickly тез Audio
slowly баяу Audio
together бірге Audio
very өте Audio
almost Audio
always әрқашан Audio
usually әдетте Audio
sometimes кейде Audio
rarely сирек Audio
never ешқашан Audio

The following examples use the adverbs in different ways and places to demonstrate how it behaves in a sentence.

Adverbs + Rules - Kazakh
do you understand me now?
[pronoun + adverb] сіз мені түсіндіңіз бе? Audio
I need help immediately
[noun + adverb] маған көмек дәл қазір қажет Audio
she is very intelligent
[adverb + adjective] ол өте ақылды Audio
I will always love you
[verb + adverb] мен сізді әрқашан жақсы көретін боламын Audio
can we learn German together?
[adverb in a question] біз неміс тілін бірге оқуымызға болады ма? Audio

Pronouns in Kazakh

We're almost done! This time we will learn the pronouns in Kazakh. In general, a pronoun can be used instead of a noun. For example instead of saying my teacher speaks 3 languages, you can use the pronoun he, and say he speaks 3 languages. Here is a list of the most common ones:

Personal Pronouns - Kazakh
I мен Audio
you сен Audio
he ол Audio
she ол Audio
we біз Audio
they олар Audio

Object Pronouns - Kazakh
me мені Audio
you сені Audio
him оны Audio
her оны Audio
us бізді Audio
them оларды Audio

Possessive Pronouns - Kazakh
my менің Audio
your сенің Audio
his оның Audio
her оның Audio
our біздің Audio
their олардың Audio

I think it's better to put the above example in a sentence to better assist you. The following examples use pronouns in different ways and places to demonstrate how they behave in a sentence. We will start with the personal pronouns.

Personal Pronouns - Kazakh
I am your friend
[1st pronoun + verb] мен сіздің досыңызбын Audio
you speak very fast
[2nd pronoun + adverb] сіз өте тез сөйлейсіз Audio
he has three dogs
[3rd pronoun + verb] оның үш иті бар Audio
she can speak German
[3rd pronoun + verb] ол неміс тілінде сөйлей алады Audio
we will not come late
[1st plural pronoun] біз кеш келмейміз Audio
they bought milk and bread
[3rd plural pronoun] олар сүт пен нан сатып алды Audio

The object pronoun is used as a target by a verb, and usually come after that verb. For example: I gave him my book. The object pronoun here is him. Here are more examples:

Object Pronouns - Kazakh
can you tell me your name?
[1st object pronoun] есіміңіз қалай? Audio
I will give you money
[2nd object pronoun] мен сізге ақша беремін Audio
she wrote him a letter
[3rd object pronoun] ол оған хат жазды Audio
they visited her yesterday
[3rd object pronoun] олар кеше оған барып келді Audio
can she help us?
[1st pl. object pronoun] ол бізге көмектесе алады ма? Audio
he gave them food
[3rd pl. object pronoun] ол оларға тамақ берді Audio

Possessive Pronouns - Kazakh
my name is Maya
[1st possessive pronoun] менің есімім Мая Audio
your brother lives here
[2nd possessive pronoun] бұл жерде сіздің ағаңыз тұрады Audio
her mother cooks for us
[3rd possessive pronoun] оның анасы бізге тамақ істейді Audio
his hobby is reading books
[3rd possessive pronoun] кітап оқу оның ермегі Audio
our dream is to visit Paris
[1st pl. possessive pronoun] Парижге бару біздің арманымыз Audio
their house is not far
[3rd pl. possessive pronoun] олардың үйі алыс емес Audio

One more thing you need to know is the demonstrative pronouns. They're very easy to learn.

Demonstrative Pronouns - Kazakh
this is my house бұл менің үйім Audio
that restaurant is far ол ресторан алыс Audio
these apples are delicious бұл алмалар дәмді екен Audio
those stars are shiny ана жұлдыздар жарқырап тұр Audio

I hope you learned a lot about the Kazakh grammar in this lesson. Please check out our main menu here for more lessons: homepage. The next lesson is below, have fun!

Inspirational Quote: First say to yourself what you would be; and then do what you have to do. Epictetus

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