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Greenlandic Grammar

Welcome to the 8th lesson about Greenlandic grammar. We will first learn about prepositions, negation, questions, adverbs, and pronouns including: personal, object and possessive pronouns.

We will start with prepositions. In general, they are used to link words to other words. For example: I speak Greenlandic and English the preposition is [and] because it connects both words Greenlandic and English. The following is a list of the most used prepositions in Greenlandic.

Prepositions - Greenlandic
and aamma Audio
above asulu Audio
under malillugu Audio
before itsaligami Audio
after annguppoq Audio
in front of saani Audio
behind kingu Audio
far from ungasiinnarmi Audio
near qanippoq Audio
in -mi, -ni Audio
inside -ut Audio
outside kinnga Audio
with -mik, -nik Audio
without silataani Audio
about -soq, -eq Audio
between ikiaq Audio
but kisianni Audio
for ilupaqut Audio
from -mit, -nit Audio
to -kkut, -tigut Audio

Preposition Grammar Rules

The following examples use prepositions in different ways and places to demonstrate how they behave in a sentence.

Prepositions + Rules - Greenlandic
I eat without a knife
[preposition + noun] Saveqarnanga nerivunga Audio
she lives near the church
[verb + preposition] Oqaluffiut eqqaani najugaqarpoq Audio
he is taller than her
[adjective + preposition] Tassumannga angineruvoq Audio
he came with his small dog
[preposition + pronoun] Qimmiartaatini nassarpaa Audio
can you come with me?
[preposition + pronoun] Ilagisinnaavinga? Audio

Negation in Greenlandic

Now let's learn how to make a negative sentence (negation). For example: Saying no, I can't, I don't ... The following examples use negation in different ways and places to demonstrate how they behave in a sentence.

Negation + Rules - Greenlandic
I understand you
[affirmative form] Paasingilara Audio
I don't understand you
[negation + verb] Paasinngilara Audio
this is not the correct word
[negation + adjective] Oqaaseq taanna eqqunngilaq Audio
don't leave me
[imperative negation] qimannannga Audio
no problem
[negation + noun] ajunngilaq Audio

Negative Sentences - Greenlandic
I don't speak French
[negation + present tense] Franskisut oqaluttanngilanga Audio
she didn't visit Germany
[negation + past tense] Tysklandimukanngilaq Audio
he cannot see us
[negative modal verb] takusinnaanngilatigut Audio
can't she play chess?
[interrogative negation] Skakkerumanngilaq? Audio
we will not come late
[negation + future tense] Kingusinaarnavianngilanga Audio

Questions in Greenlandic

Now let's learn how to ask questions (interrogative). Such as: what, why, can you ...? Here are some common examples:

English - Greenlandic
how? qanoq? Audio
what? suna? Audio
who? kikkut? Audio
why? sooq? Audio
where? sumi? Audio

More of the interrogative form, now in a sentence:

Questions + Rules - Greenlandic
where do you live?
[interrogative + verb] Sumi najugaqapit? Audio
does she speak Chinese?
[interrogative verb] Kinamiutut oqaluttarpa? Audio
how much is this?
[interrogative preposition] Qanoq akeqarpa? Audio
can I help you?
[interrogative modal verb] Ikiorsinnaavakkit? Audio
what is your name?
[interrogative preposition] Qanoq ateqarpit? Audio

Adverbs in Greenlandic

It's time to learn the adverbs in Greenlandic. But what is an adverb? In general, adverbs modify verbs and adjectives. For example: You speak fast. The adverb is [fast] because it describes the verb and answers the question how do you speak?. Here is a list of the most common ones:

Adverbs - Greenlandic
now maanna Audio
yesterday ippassaq Audio
today ullumi Audio
tonight unnugu Audio
tomorrow aqagu Audio
soon qilamik Audio
quickly assut Audio
slowly arriitsumik Audio
together attarmik Audio
very assut Audio
almost ngajappoq Audio
always tamatigut Audio
usually pisarnertut Audio
sometimes ilaanni Audio
rarely akuttusuumik Audio
never nikuu Audio

The following examples use the adverbs in different ways and places to demonstrate how it behaves in a sentence.

Adverbs + Rules - Greenlandic
do you understand me now?
[pronoun + adverb] Paasivinga? Audio
I need help immediately
[noun + adverb] Nakorsamik pisariaqartitsivunga Audio
she is very intelligent
[adverb + adjective] silapparissuuvoq Audio
I will always love you
[verb + adverb] nuannariuarpagit Audio
can we learn German together?
[adverb in a question] Tyskisut ilinniaqatigiissinnaavugut? Audio

Pronouns in Greenlandic

We're almost done! This time we will learn the pronouns in Greenlandic. In general, a pronoun can be used instead of a noun. For example instead of saying my teacher speaks 3 languages, you can use the pronoun he, and say he speaks 3 languages. Here is a list of the most common ones:

Personal Pronouns - Greenlandic
I uanga Audio
you illit Audio
he una Audio
she una Audio
we uagut Audio
they uku Audio

Object Pronouns - Greenlandic
me uannut Audio
you ilinnut Audio
him uumunnga Audio
her uumunnga Audio
us uatsigut Audio
them ukuut Audio

Possessive Pronouns - Greenlandic
my -ra Audio
your -ut Audio
his -a Audio
her -a Audio
our -rput Audio
their -at Audio

I think it's better to put the above example in a sentence to better assist you. The following examples use pronouns in different ways and places to demonstrate how they behave in a sentence. We will start with the personal pronouns.

Personal Pronouns - Greenlandic
I am your friend
[1st pronoun + verb] Ikinngutigaakkit Audio
you speak very fast
[2nd pronoun + adverb] Arriitsumik oqalulaalit Audio
he has three dogs
[3rd pronoun + verb] Pingasunik qimmeqarpoq Audio
she can speak German
[3rd pronoun + verb] Tyskisut oqalusinnaavoq Audio
we will not come late
[1st plural pronoun] Kingusinnaarnavianngilanga Audio
they bought milk and bread
[3rd plural pronoun] Immummik iffiukkamillu Audio

The object pronoun is used as a target by a verb, and usually come after that verb. For example: I gave him my book. The object pronoun here is him. Here are more examples:

Object Pronouns - Greenlandic
can you tell me your name?
[1st object pronoun] Qanoq ateqarpit? Audio
I will give you money
[2nd object pronoun] Aningaasanik tunerusuppakkit Audio
she wrote him a letter
[3rd object pronoun] Allaffigaa Audio
they visited her yesterday
[3rd object pronoun] Ippassaq pulaarpaat Audio
can she help us?
[1st pl. object pronoun] Ikiorsinnaavaatigut? Audio
he gave them food
[3rd pl. object pronoun] Nerisassinik tunivaat Audio

Possessive Pronouns - Greenlandic
my name is Maya
[1st possessive pronoun] Maya-mik ateqarpunga Audio
your brother lives here
[2nd possessive pronoun] Qatanngutit angut maani najugaqarpoq Audio
her mother cooks for us
[3rd possessive pronoun] Arnaata iggappaatigut Audio
his hobby is reading books
[3rd possessive pronoun] Atuarnermik nuannarisaqarpoq Audio
our dream is to visit Paris
[1st pl. possessive pronoun] Parisimukarusuppoq Audio
their house is not far
[3rd pl. possessive pronoun] Illuat ungasinngilaq Audio

One more thing you need to know is the demonstrative pronouns. They're very easy to learn.

Demonstrative Pronouns - Greenlandic
this is my house Tassa illora Audio
that restaurant is far Neriniartarfik taanna ungaseqaaq Audio
these apples are delicious Uku iipilit mamaqaat Audio
those stars are shiny Ullorissat uisorilapput Audio

I hope you learned a lot about the Greenlandic grammar in this lesson. Please check out our main menu here for more lessons: homepage. The next lesson is below, have fun!

Inspirational Quote: First say to yourself what you would be; and then do what you have to do. Epictetus

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