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Greek Grammar

Welcome to the 8th lesson about Greek grammar. We will first learn about prepositions, negation, questions, adverbs, and pronouns including: personal, object and possessive pronouns. To hear the pronunciation, just click on the sound icon.

We will start with prepositions. In general, they are used to link words to other words. For example: I speak Greek and English the preposition is [and] because it connects both words Greek and English. The following is a list of the most used prepositions in Greek.

Prepositions - Greek - Pronunciation
and και [kai] Audio
above άνω [ano] Audio
under υπό [epo] Audio
before προτού [protoύ] Audio
after μετά [meta] Audio
in front of μπροστά από [mprosta apo] Audio
behind πίσω από [piso apo] Audio
far from μακριά από [makria apo] Audio
near κοντά [konta] Audio
in σε [se] Audio
inside εντός [entos] Audio
outside εκτός [ektos] Audio
with με [me] Audio
without χωρίς [choris] Audio
about περίπου [peripoe] Audio
between μεταξύ [metaxύ] Audio
but αλλά [alla] Audio
for για [yia] Audio
from από [apo] Audio
to να [na] Audio

Preposition Grammar Rules

The following examples use prepositions in different ways and places to demonstrate how they behave in a sentence.

Prepositions + Rules - Greek + Pronunciation
I eat without a knife
[preposition + noun] τρώω χωρίς μαχαίρι Audio [troo choris machairi]
she lives near the church
[verb + preposition] ζει κοντά στην εκκλησία Audio [zei konta sten ekklesia]
he is taller than her
[adjective + preposition] είναι ψηλότερος από αυτήν Audio [einai pseloteros apo aeten]
he came with his small dog
[preposition + pronoun] ήρθε μαζί με το μικρό σκυλί του Audio [erthe mazi me to mikro skeli toe]
can you come with me?
[preposition + pronoun] μπορείς να έρθεις μαζί μου; Audio [mporeis na ertheis mazi moe;]

Negation in Greek

Now let's learn how to make a negative sentence (negation). For example: Saying no, I can't, I don't ... The following examples use negation in different ways and places to demonstrate how they behave in a sentence.

Negation + Rules - Greek + Pronunciation
I understand you
[affirmative form] σας καταλαβαίνω Audio [sas katalavaino]
I don't understand you
[negation + verb] δεν σας καταλαβαίνω Audio [then sas katalavaino]
this is not the correct word
[negation + adjective] αυτή δεν είναι η σωστή λέξη Audio [aete then einai e soste lexe]
don't leave me
[imperative negation] μην με αφήνεις Audio [men me afeneis]
no problem
[negation + noun] κανένα πρόβλημα Audio [kanena provlema]

Negative Sentences - Greek + Pronunciation
I don't speak French
[negation + present tense] δεν μιλώ γαλλικά Audio [then milo yallika]
she didn't visit Germany
[negation + past tense] δεν επισκέφθηκε τη γερμανία Audio [then episkeftheke te yermania]
he cannot see us
[negative modal verb] δεν μπορεί να μας δει Audio [then mporei na mas thei]
can't she play chess?
[interrogative negation] μπορεί να παίξει σκάκι; Audio [mporei na paixei skaki;]
we will not come late
[negation + future tense] δεν θα έρθουμε αργά Audio [then tha erthoeme arya]

Questions in Greek

Now let's learn how to ask questions (interrogative). Such as: what, why, can you ...? Here are some common examples:

English - Greek - Pronunciation
how? πώς; [pos;] Audio
what? τι; [ti;] Audio
who? ποιος; [poios;] Audio
why? γιατί; [yiati;] Audio
where? πού; [poύ;] Audio

More of the interrogative form, now in a sentence:

Questions + Rules - Greek + Pronunciation
where do you live?
[interrogative + verb] πού μένεις; Audio [poύ meneis;]
does she speak Chinese?
[interrogative verb] μιλάει κινέζικα; Audio [milaei kinezika;]
how much is this?
[interrogative preposition] πόσο είναι αυτό; Audio [poso einai aeto;]
can I help you?
[interrogative modal verb] μπορώ να σας βοηθήσω; Audio [mporo na sas voetheso;]
what is your name?
[interrogative preposition] ποιο είναι το όνομά σου; Audio [poio einai to onoma soe;]

Adverbs in Greek

It's time to learn the adverbs in Greek. But what is an adverb? In general, adverbs modify verbs and adjectives. For example: You speak fast. The adverb is [fast] because it describes the verb and answers the question how do you speak?. Here is a list of the most common ones:

Adverbs - Greek - Pronunciation
now τώρα [tora] Audio
yesterday εχθές [echthes] Audio
today σήμερα [semera] Audio
tonight απόψε [apopse] Audio
tomorrow αύριο [aύrio] Audio
soon σύντομα [sύntoma] Audio
quickly γρήγορα [yreyora] Audio
slowly αργά [arya] Audio
together μαζί [mazi] Audio
very πολύ [polύ] Audio
almost σχεδόν [schethon] Audio
always πάντοτε [pantote] Audio
usually συνήθως [senethos] Audio
sometimes μερικές φορές [merikes fores] Audio
rarely σχεδόν ποτέ [schethon pote] Audio
never ποτέ [pote] Audio

The following examples use the adverbs in different ways and places to demonstrate how it behaves in a sentence.

Adverbs + Rules - Greek + Pronunciation
do you understand me now?
[pronoun + adverb] με καταλαβαίνετε τώρα; Audio [me katalavainete tora;]
I need help immediately
[noun + adverb] χρειάζομαι βοήθεια αμέσως Audio [chreiazomai voetheia amesos]
she is very intelligent
[adverb + adjective] είναι πολύ έξυπνη Audio [einai polύ exepne]
I will always love you
[verb + adverb] θα σας αγαπάω για πάντα Audio [tha sas ayapao yia panta]
can we learn German together?
[adverb in a question] μπορούμε να μάθουμε γερμανικά μαζί; Audio [mporoύme na mathoeme yermanika mazi;]

Pronouns in Greek

We're almost done! This time we will learn the pronouns in Greek. In general, a pronoun can be used instead of a noun. For example instead of saying my teacher speaks 3 languages, you can use the pronoun he, and say he speaks 3 languages. Here is a list of the most common ones:

Personal Pronouns - Greek - Pronunciation
I εγώ [eyo] Audio
you εσείς [eseis] Audio
he αυτός [aetos] Audio
she αυτή [aete] Audio
we εμείς [emeis] Audio
they αυτοί [aetoi] Audio

Object Pronouns - Greek - Pronunciation
me εμένα [emena] Audio
you εσάς [esas] Audio
him αυτόν [aeton] Audio
her αυτήν [aeten] Audio
us μας [mas] Audio
them τους [toes] Audio

Possessive Pronouns - Greek - Pronunciation
my μου [moe] Audio
your σας [sas] Audio
his του [toe] Audio
her της [tes] Audio
our μας [mas] Audio
their τους [toes] Audio

I think it's better to put the above example in a sentence to better assist you. The following examples use pronouns in different ways and places to demonstrate how they behave in a sentence. We will start with the personal pronouns.

Personal Pronouns - Greek + Pronunciation
I am your friend
[1st pronoun + verb] είμαι φίλος σου Audio [eimai filos soe]
you speak very fast
[2nd pronoun + adverb] μιλάτε πολύ γρήγορα Audio [milate polύ yreyora]
he has three dogs
[3rd pronoun + verb] έχει τρία σκυλιά Audio [echei tria skelia]
she can speak German
[3rd pronoun + verb] μπορεί να μιλήσει γερμανικά Audio [mporei na milesei yermanika]
we will not come late
[1st plural pronoun] δεν θα αργήσουμε Audio [then tha aryesoeme]
they bought milk and bread
[3rd plural pronoun] αγόρασαν γάλα και ψωμί Audio [ayorasan yala kai psomi]

The object pronoun is used as a target by a verb, and usually come after that verb. For example: I gave him my book. The object pronoun here is him. Here are more examples:

Object Pronouns - Greek + Pronunciation
can you tell me your name?
[1st object pronoun] μπορείτε να μου πείτε το όνομά σας; Audio [mporeite na moe peite to onoma sas;]
I will give you money
[2nd object pronoun] θα σας δώσω χρήματα Audio [tha sas thoso chremata]
she wrote him a letter
[3rd object pronoun] του έγραψε μια επιστολή Audio [toe eyrapse mia epistole]
they visited her yesterday
[3rd object pronoun] την επισκέφθηκαν εχθές Audio [ten episkefthekan echthes]
can she help us?
[1st pl. object pronoun] μπορεί να μας βοηθήσει; Audio [mporei na mas voethesei;]
he gave them food
[3rd pl. object pronoun] τους έδωσε φαγητό Audio [toes ethose fayeto]

Possessive Pronouns - Greek + Pronunciation
my name is Maya
[1st possessive pronoun] το όνομά μου είναι μάγια Audio [to onoma moe einai mayia]
your brother lives here
[2nd possessive pronoun] ο αδελφός σου ζει εδώ Audio [o athelfos soe zei etho]
her mother cooks for us
[3rd possessive pronoun] η μητέρα της μαγειρεύει για μας Audio [e metera tes mayeireύei yia mas]
his hobby is reading books
[3rd possessive pronoun] χόμπι του είναι η ανάγνωση βιβλίων Audio [chompi toe einai e anaynose vivlion]
our dream is to visit Paris
[1st pl. possessive pronoun] το όνειρό μας είναι να επισκεφθούμε το παρίσι Audio [to oneiro mas einai na episkefthoύme to parisi]
their house is not far
[3rd pl. possessive pronoun] το σπίτι τους δεν είναι μακριά Audio [to spiti toes then einai makria]

One more thing you need to know is the demonstrative pronouns. They're very easy to learn.

Demonstrative Pronouns - Greek - Pronunciation
this is my house αυτό είναι το σπίτι μου [aeto einai to spiti moe] Audio
that restaurant is far αυτό το εστιατόριο είναι μακριά [aeto to estiatorio einai makria] Audio
these apples are delicious αυτά τα μήλα είναι νόστιμα [aeta ta mela einai nostima] Audio
those stars are shiny τα αστέρια αυτά είναι λαμπερά [ta asteria aeta einai lampera] Audio

I hope you learned a lot about the Greek grammar in this lesson. Please check out our main menu here for more lessons: homepage. The next lesson is below, have fun!

Inspirational Quote: First say to yourself what you would be; and then do what you have to do. Epictetus

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