Finnish Grammar

Welcome to the 8th lesson about Finnish grammar. We will first learn about prepositions, negation, questions, adverbs, and pronouns including: personal, object and possessive pronouns.

We will start with prepositions. In general, they are used to link words to other words. For example: I speak Finnish and English the preposition is [and] because it connects both words Finnish and English. The following is a list of the most used prepositions in Finnish.

Prepositions
Finnish
and
ja Audio
above
yllä Audio
under
alle Audio
before
ennen Audio
after
jälkeen Audio
in front of
edessä Audio
behind
takana Audio
far from
kaukana Audio
near
lähellä Audio
in
- ssa; -ssä Audio
inside
sisällä Audio
outside
ulkona Audio
with
kanssa Audio
without
ilman Audio
about
noin Audio
between
välillä Audio
but
mutta Audio
for
varten Audio
from
alkaen Audio
to
-aan, -ään Audio

Preposition Grammar Rules

The following examples use prepositions in different ways and places to demonstrate how they behave in a sentence.

Prepositions + Rules
Finnish
I eat without a knife
[preposition + noun]
syön ilman veistä Audio
she lives near the church
[verb + preposition]
hän asuu lähellä kirkkoa Audio
he is taller than her
[adjective + preposition]
hän on pidempi kuin hän Audio
he came with his small dog
[preposition + pronoun]
hän tuli pienen koiransa kanssa Audio
can you come with me?
[preposition + pronoun]
voitko tulla kanssani? Audio

Negation in Finnish

Now let's learn how to make a negative sentence (negation). For example: Saying no, I can't, I don't ... The following examples use negation in different ways and places to demonstrate how they behave in a sentence.

Negation + Rules
Finnish
I understand you
[affirmative form]
ymmärrän sinua Audio
I don't understand you
[negation + verb]
en ymmärrä sinua Audio
this is not the correct word
[negation + adjective]
tämä ei ole oikea sana Audio
don't leave me
[imperative negation]
älä jätä minua Audio
no problem
[negation + noun]
ei ongelmaa Audio

Negative Sentences
Finnish
I don't speak French
[negation + present tense]
en puhu ranskaa Audio
she didn't visit Germany
[negation + past tense]
hän ei käynyt saksassa Audio
he cannot see us
[negative modal verb]
hän ei voi nähdä meitä Audio
can't she play chess?
[interrogative negation]
eikö hän osaa pelata shakkia? Audio
we will not come late
[negation + future tense]
me emme tule myöhässä Audio

Questions in Finnish

Now let's learn how to ask questions (interrogative). Such as: what, why, can you ...? Here are some common examples:

English
Finnish
how?
miten? Audio
what?
mitä? Audio
who?
kuka? Audio
why?
miksi? Audio
where?
missä? Audio

More of the interrogative form, now in a sentence:

Questions + Rules
Finnish
where do you live?
[interrogative + verb]
missä asut? Audio
does she speak Chinese?
[interrogative verb]
puhuuko hän kiinaa? Audio
how much is this?
[interrogative preposition]
kuinka paljon tämä on? Audio
can I help you?
[interrogative modal verb]
voinko auttaa? Audio
what is your name?
[interrogative preposition]
mikä on nimesi? Audio

Adverbs in Finnish

It's time to learn the adverbs in Finnish. But what is an adverb? In general, adverbs modify verbs and adjectives. For example: You speak fast. The adverb is [fast] because it describes the verb and answers the question how do you speak?. Here is a list of the most common ones:

Adverbs
Finnish
now
nyt Audio
yesterday
eilen Audio
today
tänään Audio
tonight
tänä iltana Audio
tomorrow
huomenna Audio
soon
pian Audio
quickly
nopeasti Audio
slowly
hitaasti Audio
together
yhdessä Audio
very
oikein/hyvin Audio
almost
melkein Audio
always
aina Audio
usually
yleensä Audio
sometimes
joskus Audio
rarely
harvoin Audio
never
ei koskaan Audio

The following examples use the adverbs in different ways and places to demonstrate how it behaves in a sentence.

Adverbs + Rules
Finnish
do you understand me now?
[pronoun + adverb]
ymmärrätkö nyt? Audio
I need help immediately
[noun + adverb]
tarvitsen apua välittömästi Audio
she is very intelligent
[adverb + adjective]
hän on erittäin älykäs Audio
I will always love you
[verb + adverb]
tulen aina rakastamaan sinua Audio
can we learn German together?
[adverb in a question]
voimmeko opiskella yhdessä saksaa? Audio

Pronouns in Finnish

We're almost done! This time we will learn the pronouns in Finnish. In general, a pronoun can be used instead of a noun. For example instead of saying my teacher speaks 3 languages, you can use the pronoun he, and say he speaks 3 languages. Here is a list of the most common ones:

Personal Pronouns
Finnish
I
minä Audio
you
sinä, te Audio
he
hän Audio
she
hän Audio
we
me Audio
they
he Audio

Object Pronouns
Finnish
me
minut/minua Audio
you
sinut, teidät/sinua, teitä Audio
him
hänet/häntä Audio
her
hänet/häntä Audio
us
meidät/meitä Audio
them
heidät/heitä Audio

Possessive Pronouns
Finnish
my
minun Audio
your
sinun, teidän Audio
his
hänen Audio
her
hänen Audio
our
meidän Audio
their
heidän Audio

I think it's better to put the above example in a sentence to better assist you. The following examples use pronouns in different ways and places to demonstrate how they behave in a sentence. We will start with the personal pronouns.

Personal Pronouns
Finnish
I am your friend
[1st pronoun + verb]
olen ystäväsi Audio
you speak very fast
[2nd pronoun + adverb]
puhutte hyvin nopeasti Audio
he has three dogs
[3rd pronoun + verb]
hänellä on kolme koiraa Audio
she can speak German
[3rd pronoun + verb]
hän osaa puhua saksaa Audio
we will not come late
[1st plural pronoun]
me emme tule myöhään Audio
they bought milk and bread
[3rd plural pronoun]
he ostivat maitoa ja leipää Audio

The object pronoun is used as a target by a verb, and usually come after that verb. For example: I gave him my book. The object pronoun here is him. Here are more examples:

Object Pronouns
Finnish
can you tell me your name?
[1st object pronoun]
voitko kertoa minulle nimesi? Audio
I will give you money
[2nd object pronoun]
annan rahaa Audio
she wrote him a letter
[3rd object pronoun]
hän kirjoitti hänelle kirjeen Audio
they visited her yesterday
[3rd object pronoun]
he kävivät hänellä eilen Audio
can she help us?
[1st pl. object pronoun]
voiko hän auttaa meitä? Audio
he gave them food
[3rd pl. object pronoun]
hän antoi heille ruokaa Audio

Possessive Pronouns
Finnish
my name is Maya
[1st possessive pronoun]
nimeni on maya Audio
your brother lives here
[2nd possessive pronoun]
veljesi asuu täällä Audio
her mother cooks for us
[3rd possessive pronoun]
äiti laittaa meille ruokaa Audio
his hobby is reading books
[3rd possessive pronoun]
hänen harrastuksensa on kirjojen lukeminen Audio
our dream is to visit Paris
[1st pl. possessive pronoun]
unelmamme on käydä pariisissa Audio
their house is not far
[3rd pl. possessive pronoun]
heidän talonsa ei ole kaukana Audio

One more thing you need to know is the demonstrative pronouns. They're very easy to learn.

Demonstrative Pronouns
Finnish
this is my house
tämä on minun taloni Audio
that restaurant is far
tuo ravintola on kaukana Audio
these apples are delicious
nämä omenat ovat herkullisia Audio
those stars are shiny
nuo tähdet hohtavat Audio

I hope you learned a lot about the Finnish grammar in this lesson. If you have any question about this lesson please contact me here. The next lesson is below, have fun!

Finnish Phrases   Finnish Phrases

Finnish Vocabulary   Finnish Vocabulary



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Inspirational Quote: First say to yourself what you would be; and then do what you have to do. Epictetus