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Dari Grammar

Welcome to the 8th lesson about Dari grammar. We will first learn about prepositions, negation, questions, adverbs, and pronouns including: personal, object and possessive pronouns.

We will start with prepositions. In general, they are used to link words to other words. For example: I speak Dari and English the preposition is [and] because it connects both words Dari and English. The following is a list of the most used prepositions in Dari.

Prepositions - Dari
and و Audio
above بالای Audio
under زیر Audio
before قبل از Audio
after پس از Audio
in front of در مقابل Audio
behind پشت سر Audio
far from دور از Audio
near نزدیک Audio
in در، طی Audio
inside داخل Audio
outside خارج از Audio
with با Audio
without بدون Audio
about درباره Audio
between میان Audio
but اما Audio
for برای Audio
from از Audio
to به Audio

Preposition Grammar Rules

The following examples use prepositions in different ways and places to demonstrate how they behave in a sentence.

Prepositions + Rules - Dari
I eat without a knife
[preposition + noun] من بدون چاقو غذا می خورم Audio
she lives near the church
[verb + preposition] او در نزدیکی کلیسا زندگی می کند Audio
he is taller than her
[adjective + preposition] او بلندتر از آن خانم است Audio
he came with his small dog
[preposition + pronoun] او با سگ کوچکش آمد Audio
can you come with me?
[preposition + pronoun] آیا می توانید با من بیایید؟ Audio

Negation in Dari

Now let's learn how to make a negative sentence (negation). For example: Saying no, I can't, I don't ... The following examples use negation in different ways and places to demonstrate how they behave in a sentence.

Negation + Rules - Dari
I understand you
[affirmative form] منظور شما را می فهمم Audio
I don't understand you
[negation + verb] منظور شما را نمی فهمم Audio
this is not the correct word
[negation + adjective] این کلمه صحیح نمی باشد Audio
don't leave me
[imperative negation] من را تنها نگذار Audio
no problem
[negation + noun] مشکلی نیست Audio

Negative Sentences - Dari
I don't speak French
[negation + present tense] من فرانسوی صحبت نمی کنم Audio
she didn't visit Germany
[negation + past tense] او به آلمان سفر نکرد Audio
he cannot see us
[negative modal verb] او نمی تواند ما را ببیند Audio
can't she play chess?
[interrogative negation] آیا نمی تواند شطرنج بازی کند؟ Audio
we will not come late
[negation + future tense] ما دیر نخواهیم کرد Audio

Questions in Dari

Now let's learn how to ask questions (interrogative). Such as: what, why, can you ...? Here are some common examples:

English - Dari
how? چگونه؟ Audio
what? چه؟ Audio
who? که؟ چه کسی؟ Audio
why? چرا؟ Audio
where? کجا؟ Audio

More of the interrogative form, now in a sentence:

Questions + Rules - Dari
where do you live?
[interrogative + verb] کجا زندگی می کنید؟ Audio
does she speak Chinese?
[interrogative verb] آیا او چینی صحبت می کند؟ Audio
how much is this?
[interrogative preposition] قیمت این چقدر است؟ Audio
can I help you?
[interrogative modal verb] می توانم به شما کمک کنم؟ Audio
what is your name?
[interrogative preposition] نام شما چیست؟ Audio

Adverbs in Dari

It's time to learn the adverbs in Dari. But what is an adverb? In general, adverbs modify verbs and adjectives. For example: You speak fast. The adverb is [fast] because it describes the verb and answers the question how do you speak?. Here is a list of the most common ones:

Adverbs - Dari
now اکنون Audio
yesterday دیروز Audio
today امروز Audio
tonight امشب Audio
tomorrow فردا Audio
soon به زودی Audio
quickly به سرعت Audio
slowly به آهستگی Audio
together با هم Audio
very بسیار Audio
almost تقریباً Audio
always همیشه Audio
usually معمولاً Audio
sometimes گاهی Audio
rarely بندرت Audio
never هرگز Audio

The following examples use the adverbs in different ways and places to demonstrate how it behaves in a sentence.

Adverbs + Rules - Dari
do you understand me now?
[pronoun + adverb] حالا منظور من را می فهمید؟ Audio
I need help immediately
[noun + adverb] من نیاز به کمک فوری دارم Audio
she is very intelligent
[adverb + adjective] او بسیار باهوش است؟ Audio
I will always love you
[verb + adverb] من همیشه شما را دوست خواهم داشت Audio
can we learn German together?
[adverb in a question] آیا می توانیم با هم زبان آلمانی یاد بگیریم؟ Audio

Pronouns in Dari

We're almost done! This time we will learn the pronouns in Dari. In general, a pronoun can be used instead of a noun. For example instead of saying my teacher speaks 3 languages, you can use the pronoun he, and say he speaks 3 languages. Here is a list of the most common ones:

Personal Pronouns - Dari
I من Audio
you تو / شما Audio
he او (مرد) Audio
she او (زن) Audio
we ما Audio
they آنها Audio

Object Pronouns - Dari
me من را Audio
you تو / شما را Audio
him او را (مرد) Audio
her او را (زن) Audio
us ما را Audio
them آنها را Audio

Possessive Pronouns - Dari
my ازمن (مالکیت) Audio
your از تو / شما (مالکیت) Audio
his ازاو (مالکیت) (مرد) Audio
her از او (مالکیت) (زن) Audio
our از ما (مالکیت) Audio
their از آنها (مالکیت) Audio

I think it's better to put the above example in a sentence to better assist you. The following examples use pronouns in different ways and places to demonstrate how they behave in a sentence. We will start with the personal pronouns.

Personal Pronouns - Dari
I am your friend
[1st pronoun + verb] من دوست شما هستم Audio
you speak very fast
[2nd pronoun + adverb] شما خیلی سریع صحبت می زنید Audio
he has three dogs
[3rd pronoun + verb] او سه سگ دارد Audio
she can speak German
[3rd pronoun + verb] او می تواند آلمانی صحبت کند Audio
we will not come late
[1st plural pronoun] ما دیر نخواهیم آمد Audio
they bought milk and bread
[3rd plural pronoun] آنها شیر و نان خریدند Audio

The object pronoun is used as a target by a verb, and usually come after that verb. For example: I gave him my book. The object pronoun here is him. Here are more examples:

Object Pronouns - Dari
can you tell me your name?
[1st object pronoun] بفرمایید اسمتان چیست؟ Audio
I will give you money
[2nd object pronoun] من به شما پول خواهم داد Audio
she wrote him a letter
[3rd object pronoun] او برایش یک نامه نوشت Audio
they visited her yesterday
[3rd object pronoun] آنها دیروز او را ملاقات کردند Audio
can she help us?
[1st pl. object pronoun] آیا می تواند به ما کمک کند؟ Audio
he gave them food
[3rd pl. object pronoun] او به آنها غذا داد Audio

Possessive Pronouns - Dari
my name is Maya
[1st possessive pronoun] نام من مایا است Audio
your brother lives here
[2nd possessive pronoun] برادر شما در اینجا زندگی می کند Audio
her mother cooks for us
[3rd possessive pronoun] مادرش برای ما آشپزی می کند Audio
his hobby is reading books
[3rd possessive pronoun] سرگرمی او خواندن کتاب است Audio
our dream is to visit Paris
[1st pl. possessive pronoun] رؤیای ما این است که از پاریس دیدن کنیم Audio
their house is not far
[3rd pl. possessive pronoun] خانه آنها دور نیست Audio

One more thing you need to know is the demonstrative pronouns. They're very easy to learn.

Demonstrative Pronouns - Dari
this is my house این خانه من است Audio
that restaurant is far آن رستوران دور است Audio
these apples are delicious این سیب ها خوشمزه هستند Audio
those stars are shiny اون ستاره ها درخشان هستند Audio

I hope you learned a lot about the Dari grammar in this lesson. Please check out our main menu here for more lessons: homepage. The next lesson is below, have fun!

Inspirational Quote: First say to yourself what you would be; and then do what you have to do. Epictetus

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