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Czech Grammar

Welcome to the 8th lesson about Czech grammar. We will first learn about prepositions, negation, questions, adverbs, and pronouns including: personal, object and possessive pronouns.

We will start with prepositions. In general, they are used to link words to other words. For example: I speak Czech and English the preposition is [and] because it connects both words Czech and English. The following is a list of the most used prepositions in Czech.

Prepositions - Czech
and a Audio
above nad Audio
under pod Audio
before před Audio
after po Audio
in front of před Audio
behind za Audio
far from daleko od Audio
near blízko Audio
in v Audio
inside uvnitř Audio
outside mimo Audio
with s Audio
without bez Audio
about o Audio
between mezi Audio
but ale Audio
for pro Audio
from od, z Audio
to na Audio

Preposition Grammar Rules

The following examples use prepositions in different ways and places to demonstrate how they behave in a sentence.

Prepositions + Rules - Czech
I eat without a knife
[preposition + noun] Jím bez nože Audio
she lives near the church
[verb + preposition] žije u kostela Audio
he is taller than her
[adjective + preposition] Je vyšší než ona Audio
he came with his small dog
[preposition + pronoun] přišel se svým psíkem Audio
can you come with me?
[preposition + pronoun] Můžete jít se mnou? Audio

Negation in Czech

Now let's learn how to make a negative sentence (negation). For example: Saying no, I can't, I don't ... The following examples use negation in different ways and places to demonstrate how they behave in a sentence.

Negation + Rules - Czech
I understand you
[affirmative form] Já vám rozumím Audio
I don't understand you
[negation + verb] Já vám nerozumím Audio
this is not the correct word
[negation + adjective] není to správné slovo Audio
don't leave me
[imperative negation] Neopouštěj mě Audio
no problem
[negation + noun] není problém Audio

Negative Sentences - Czech
I don't speak French
[negation + present tense] Neumím francouzsky Audio
she didn't visit Germany
[negation + past tense] (Nikdy) nenavštívila Německo Audio
he cannot see us
[negative modal verb] Nevidí nás Audio
can't she play chess?
[interrogative negation] Nechtěla by hrát šachy? Audio
we will not come late
[negation + future tense] Nepřijdeme pozdě Audio

Questions in Czech

Now let's learn how to ask questions (interrogative). Such as: what, why, can you ...? Here are some common examples:

English - Czech
how? Jak (na to)? Audio
what? Co? Audio
who? Kdo? Audio
why? Proč? Audio
where? Kde? Audio

More of the interrogative form, now in a sentence:

Questions + Rules - Czech
where do you live?
[interrogative + verb] Kde bydlíte? Audio
does she speak Chinese?
[interrogative verb] ona mluví čínsky? Audio
how much is this?
[interrogative preposition] Kolik to stojí? Audio
can I help you?
[interrogative modal verb] Můžu vám pomoci? Audio
what is your name?
[interrogative preposition] Jaké je vaše jméno? Audio

Adverbs in Czech

It's time to learn the adverbs in Czech. But what is an adverb? In general, adverbs modify verbs and adjectives. For example: You speak fast. The adverb is [fast] because it describes the verb and answers the question how do you speak?. Here is a list of the most common ones:

Adverbs - Czech
now nyní Audio
yesterday včera Audio
today dnes Audio
tonight dnes večer Audio
tomorrow zítra Audio
soon brzy Audio
quickly rychle Audio
slowly pomalu Audio
together společně Audio
very velmi Audio
almost téměř Audio
always vždy Audio
usually obvykle Audio
sometimes někdy Audio
rarely zřídka Audio
never nikdy Audio

The following examples use the adverbs in different ways and places to demonstrate how it behaves in a sentence.

Adverbs + Rules - Czech
do you understand me now?
[pronoun + adverb] Už mi rozumíte? Audio
I need help immediately
[noun + adverb] Potřebuji okamžitou pomoc Audio
she is very intelligent
[adverb + adjective] Je velmi inteligentní Audio
I will always love you
[verb + adverb] Vždy vás budu milovat Audio
can we learn German together?
[adverb in a question] Můžeme se spolu učit německy? Audio

Pronouns in Czech

We're almost done! This time we will learn the pronouns in Czech. In general, a pronoun can be used instead of a noun. For example instead of saying my teacher speaks 3 languages, you can use the pronoun he, and say he speaks 3 languages. Here is a list of the most common ones:

Personal Pronouns - Czech
you ty, vy Audio
he on Audio
she ona Audio
we my Audio
they oni, ony Audio

Object Pronouns - Czech
me mě, mne, mně, mi Audio
you vás, vám, tobě, ti, tebe, tě Audio
him ho, jej, jemu, mu, němu,ním Audio
her jí, ní, Audio
us nás, nám, námi Audio
them je, jim, jimi Audio

Possessive Pronouns - Czech
my můj, moje Audio
your tvůj, tvoje, vaše, váš Audio
his jeho Audio
her její Audio
our náš Audio
their jejich Audio

I think it's better to put the above example in a sentence to better assist you. The following examples use pronouns in different ways and places to demonstrate how they behave in a sentence. We will start with the personal pronouns.

Personal Pronouns - Czech
I am your friend
[1st pronoun + verb] Jsem tvůj přítel Audio
you speak very fast
[2nd pronoun + adverb] Mluvíte velmi rychle Audio
he has three dogs
[3rd pronoun + verb] má tři psy Audio
she can speak German
[3rd pronoun + verb] umí mluvit německy Audio
we will not come late
[1st plural pronoun] Nepřijdeme pozdě Audio
they bought milk and bread
[3rd plural pronoun] Koupili mléko a chléb Audio

The object pronoun is used as a target by a verb, and usually come after that verb. For example: I gave him my book. The object pronoun here is him. Here are more examples:

Object Pronouns - Czech
can you tell me your name?
[1st object pronoun] Můžete mi říct své jméno? Audio
I will give you money
[2nd object pronoun] Dám vám peníze Audio
she wrote him a letter
[3rd object pronoun] Napsala mu dopis Audio
they visited her yesterday
[3rd object pronoun] Navštívili ji včera Audio
can she help us?
[1st pl. object pronoun] Může nám pomoci? Audio
he gave them food
[3rd pl. object pronoun] dal jim jídlo Audio

Possessive Pronouns - Czech
my name is Maya
[1st possessive pronoun] Mé jméno je Maya Audio
your brother lives here
[2nd possessive pronoun] tvůj bratr žije zde Audio
her mother cooks for us
[3rd possessive pronoun] její matka vaří pro nás Audio
his hobby is reading books
[3rd possessive pronoun] Jeho koníčkem je čtení knih Audio
our dream is to visit Paris
[1st pl. possessive pronoun] Naším snem je navštívit Paříž Audio
their house is not far
[3rd pl. possessive pronoun] Jejich dům je blízko Audio

One more thing you need to know is the demonstrative pronouns. They're very easy to learn.

Demonstrative Pronouns - Czech
this is my house To je můj dům Audio
that restaurant is far Tato restaurace je daleko Audio
these apples are delicious Tato jablka jsou výborná Audio
those stars are shiny Tamty hvězdy září Audio

I hope you learned a lot about the Czech grammar in this lesson. Please check out our main menu here for more lessons: homepage. The next lesson is below, have fun!

Inspirational Quote: First say to yourself what you would be; and then do what you have to do. Epictetus

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