Czech Grammar

Welcome to the 8th lesson about Czech grammar. We will first learn about prepositions, negation, questions, adverbs, and pronouns including: personal, object and possessive pronouns.

We will start with prepositions. In general, they are used to link words to other words. For example: I speak Czech and English the preposition is [and] because it connects both words Czech and English. The following is a list of the most used prepositions in Czech.

Prepositions
Czech
and
a Audio
above
nad Audio
under
pod Audio
before
před Audio
after
po Audio
in front of
před Audio
behind
za Audio
far from
daleko od Audio
near
blízko Audio
in
v Audio
inside
uvnitř Audio
outside
mimo Audio
with
s Audio
without
bez Audio
about
o Audio
between
mezi Audio
but
ale Audio
for
pro Audio
from
od, z Audio
to
na Audio

Preposition Grammar Rules

The following examples use prepositions in different ways and places to demonstrate how they behave in a sentence.

Prepositions + Rules
Czech
I eat without a knife
[preposition + noun]
Jím bez nože Audio
she lives near the church
[verb + preposition]
žije u kostela Audio
he is taller than her
[adjective + preposition]
Je vyšší než ona Audio
he came with his small dog
[preposition + pronoun]
přišel se svým psíkem Audio
can you come with me?
[preposition + pronoun]
Můžete jít se mnou? Audio

Negation in Czech

Now let's learn how to make a negative sentence (negation). For example: Saying no, I can't, I don't ... The following examples use negation in different ways and places to demonstrate how they behave in a sentence.

Negation + Rules
Czech
I understand you
[affirmative form]
Já vám rozumím Audio
I don't understand you
[negation + verb]
Já vám nerozumím Audio
this is not the correct word
[negation + adjective]
není to správné slovo Audio
don't leave me
[imperative negation]
Neopouštěj mě Audio
no problem
[negation + noun]
není problém Audio

Negative Sentences
Czech
I don't speak French
[negation + present tense]
Neumím francouzsky Audio
she didn't visit Germany
[negation + past tense]
(Nikdy) nenavštívila Německo Audio
he cannot see us
[negative modal verb]
Nevidí nás Audio
can't she play chess?
[interrogative negation]
Nechtěla by hrát šachy? Audio
we will not come late
[negation + future tense]
Nepřijdeme pozdě Audio

Questions in Czech

Now let's learn how to ask questions (interrogative). Such as: what, why, can you ...? Here are some common examples:

English
Czech
how?
Jak (na to)? Audio
what?
Co? Audio
who?
Kdo? Audio
why?
Proč? Audio
where?
Kde? Audio

More of the interrogative form, now in a sentence:

Questions + Rules
Czech
where do you live?
[interrogative + verb]
Kde bydlíte? Audio
does she speak Chinese?
[interrogative verb]
ona mluví čínsky? Audio
how much is this?
[interrogative preposition]
Kolik to stojí? Audio
can I help you?
[interrogative modal verb]
Můžu vám pomoci? Audio
what is your name?
[interrogative preposition]
Jaké je vaše jméno? Audio

Adverbs in Czech

It's time to learn the adverbs in Czech. But what is an adverb? In general, adverbs modify verbs and adjectives. For example: You speak fast. The adverb is [fast] because it describes the verb and answers the question how do you speak?. Here is a list of the most common ones:

Adverbs
Czech
now
nyní Audio
yesterday
včera Audio
today
dnes Audio
tonight
dnes večer Audio
tomorrow
zítra Audio
soon
brzy Audio
quickly
rychle Audio
slowly
pomalu Audio
together
společně Audio
very
velmi Audio
almost
téměř Audio
always
vždy Audio
usually
obvykle Audio
sometimes
někdy Audio
rarely
zřídka Audio
never
nikdy Audio

The following examples use the adverbs in different ways and places to demonstrate how it behaves in a sentence.

Adverbs + Rules
Czech
do you understand me now?
[pronoun + adverb]
Už mi rozumíte? Audio
I need help immediately
[noun + adverb]
Potřebuji okamžitou pomoc Audio
she is very intelligent
[adverb + adjective]
Je velmi inteligentní Audio
I will always love you
[verb + adverb]
Vždy vás budu milovat Audio
can we learn German together?
[adverb in a question]
Můžeme se spolu učit německy? Audio

Pronouns in Czech

We're almost done! This time we will learn the pronouns in Czech. In general, a pronoun can be used instead of a noun. For example instead of saying my teacher speaks 3 languages, you can use the pronoun he, and say he speaks 3 languages. Here is a list of the most common ones:

Personal Pronouns
Czech
I
Audio
you
ty, vy Audio
he
on Audio
she
ona Audio
we
my Audio
they
oni, ony Audio

Object Pronouns
Czech
me
mě, mne, mně, mi Audio
you
vás, vám, tobě, ti, tebe, tě Audio
him
ho, jej, jemu, mu, němu,ním Audio
her
jí, ní, Audio
us
nás, nám, námi Audio
them
je, jim, jimi Audio

Possessive Pronouns
Czech
my
můj, moje Audio
your
tvůj, tvoje, vaše, váš Audio
his
jeho Audio
her
její Audio
our
náš Audio
their
jejich Audio

I think it's better to put the above example in a sentence to better assist you. The following examples use pronouns in different ways and places to demonstrate how they behave in a sentence. We will start with the personal pronouns.

Personal Pronouns
Czech
I am your friend
[1st pronoun + verb]
Jsem tvůj přítel Audio
you speak very fast
[2nd pronoun + adverb]
Mluvíte velmi rychle Audio
he has three dogs
[3rd pronoun + verb]
má tři psy Audio
she can speak German
[3rd pronoun + verb]
umí mluvit německy Audio
we will not come late
[1st plural pronoun]
Nepřijdeme pozdě Audio
they bought milk and bread
[3rd plural pronoun]
Koupili mléko a chléb Audio

The object pronoun is used as a target by a verb, and usually come after that verb. For example: I gave him my book. The object pronoun here is him. Here are more examples:

Object Pronouns
Czech
can you tell me your name?
[1st object pronoun]
Můžete mi říct své jméno? Audio
I will give you money
[2nd object pronoun]
Dám vám peníze Audio
she wrote him a letter
[3rd object pronoun]
Napsala mu dopis Audio
they visited her yesterday
[3rd object pronoun]
Navštívili ji včera Audio
can she help us?
[1st pl. object pronoun]
Může nám pomoci? Audio
he gave them food
[3rd pl. object pronoun]
dal jim jídlo Audio

Possessive Pronouns
Czech
my name is Maya
[1st possessive pronoun]
Mé jméno je Maya Audio
your brother lives here
[2nd possessive pronoun]
tvůj bratr žije zde Audio
her mother cooks for us
[3rd possessive pronoun]
její matka vaří pro nás Audio
his hobby is reading books
[3rd possessive pronoun]
Jeho koníčkem je čtení knih Audio
our dream is to visit Paris
[1st pl. possessive pronoun]
Naším snem je navštívit Paříž Audio
their house is not far
[3rd pl. possessive pronoun]
Jejich dům je blízko Audio

One more thing you need to know is the demonstrative pronouns. They're very easy to learn.

Demonstrative Pronouns
Czech
this is my house
To je můj dům Audio
that restaurant is far
Tato restaurace je daleko Audio
these apples are delicious
Tato jablka jsou výborná Audio
those stars are shiny
Tamty hvězdy září Audio

I hope you learned a lot about the Czech grammar in this lesson. If you have any question about this lesson please contact me here. The next lesson is below, have fun!

Czech Phrases   Czech Phrases

Czech Vocabulary   Czech Vocabulary



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Inspirational Quote: First say to yourself what you would be; and then do what you have to do. Epictetus