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Catalan Grammar

Welcome to the 8th lesson about Catalan grammar. We will first learn about prepositions, negation, questions, adverbs, and pronouns including: personal, object and possessive pronouns.

We will start with prepositions. In general, they are used to link words to other words. For example: I speak Catalan and English the preposition is [and] because it connects both words Catalan and English. The following is a list of the most used prepositions in Catalan.

Prepositions - Catalan
and i Audio
above per sobre de Audio
under sota Audio
before abans Audio
after després de Audio
in front of davant Audio
behind darrere de Audio
far from lluny de Audio
near prop de Audio
in a/en Audio
inside dins/dintre Audio
outside fora Audio
with amb Audio
without sense Audio
about sobre Audio
between entre Audio
but però Audio
for per Audio
from de Audio
to a Audio

Preposition Grammar Rules

The following examples use prepositions in different ways and places to demonstrate how they behave in a sentence.

Prepositions + Rules - Catalan
I eat without a knife
[preposition + noun] menjo sense ganivet Audio
she lives near the church
[verb + preposition] ella viu prop de l'església Audio
he is taller than her
[adjective + preposition] ell és més alt que ella Audio
he came with his small dog
[preposition + pronoun] ell va venir amb el seu gos petit Audio
can you come with me?
[preposition + pronoun] pots venir amb mi? Audio

Negation in Catalan

Now let's learn how to make a negative sentence (negation). For example: Saying no, I can't, I don't ... The following examples use negation in different ways and places to demonstrate how they behave in a sentence.

Negation + Rules - Catalan
I understand you
[affirmative form] t'entenc Audio
I don't understand you
[negation + verb] no t'entenc Audio
this is not the correct word
[negation + adjective] aquesta no és la paraula correcta Audio
don't leave me
[imperative negation] no em deixis Audio
no problem
[negation + noun] no hi ha cap problema Audio

Negative Sentences - Catalan
I don't speak French
[negation + present tense] no parlo francès Audio
she didn't visit Germany
[negation + past tense] ella no va visitar alemanya Audio
he cannot see us
[negative modal verb] no ens pot veure Audio
can't she play chess?
[interrogative negation] que sap jugar a escacs? Audio
we will not come late
[negation + future tense] no farem tard Audio

Questions in Catalan

Now let's learn how to ask questions (interrogative). Such as: what, why, can you ...? Here are some common examples:

English - Catalan
how? com? Audio
what? què? Audio
who? que? Audio
why? per què? Audio
where? on? Audio

More of the interrogative form, now in a sentence:

Questions + Rules - Catalan
where do you live?
[interrogative + verb] on vius? Audio
does she speak Chinese?
[interrogative verb] que parla xinès? Audio
how much is this?
[interrogative preposition] quant és això? Audio
can I help you?
[interrogative modal verb] puc ajudar en alguna cosa? Audio
what is your name?
[interrogative preposition] com et dius? Audio

Adverbs in Catalan

It's time to learn the adverbs in Catalan. But what is an adverb? In general, adverbs modify verbs and adjectives. For example: You speak fast. The adverb is [fast] because it describes the verb and answers the question how do you speak?. Here is a list of the most common ones:

Adverbs - Catalan
now ara Audio
yesterday ahir Audio
today avui Audio
tonight aquesta nit Audio
tomorrow demà Audio
soon aviat Audio
quickly ràpidament Audio
slowly a poc a poc Audio
together junts Audio
very molt Audio
almost gairebé Audio
always sempre Audio
usually habitualment Audio
sometimes de vegades Audio
rarely poques vegades Audio
never mai Audio

The following examples use the adverbs in different ways and places to demonstrate how it behaves in a sentence.

Adverbs + Rules - Catalan
do you understand me now?
[pronoun + adverb] m'entens ara? Audio
I need help immediately
[noun + adverb] necessito ajuda immediata Audio
she is very intelligent
[adverb + adjective] ella és molt intel·ligent Audio
I will always love you
[verb + adverb] sempre t'estimaré Audio
can we learn German together?
[adverb in a question] podem aprendre alemany junts? Audio

Pronouns in Catalan

We're almost done! This time we will learn the pronouns in Catalan. In general, a pronoun can be used instead of a noun. For example instead of saying my teacher speaks 3 languages, you can use the pronoun he, and say he speaks 3 languages. Here is a list of the most common ones:

Personal Pronouns - Catalan
I jo Audio
you tu/vostè/vosaltres Audio
he ell Audio
she ella Audio
we nosaltres Audio
they ells Audio

Object Pronouns - Catalan
me mi Audio
you tu/vostè/vosaltres Audio
him ell Audio
her ella Audio
us nosaltres Audio
them ells Audio

Possessive Pronouns - Catalan
my el(s) meu(s)/la (les) meva (meves) Audio
your el(s) teu(s)/la (les) teva (teves) Audio
his el(s)seu(s)/ la (les) seva (seves) Audio
her el(s) seu(s)/la (les)seva (seves) Audio
our el (la) nostre/els (les) nostres Audio
their el(s) seu(s)/la (les)seva (seves) Audio

I think it's better to put the above example in a sentence to better assist you. The following examples use pronouns in different ways and places to demonstrate how they behave in a sentence. We will start with the personal pronouns.

Personal Pronouns - Catalan
I am your friend
[1st pronoun + verb] sóc el teu amic Audio
you speak very fast
[2nd pronoun + adverb] vostè parla molt ràpid Audio
he has three dogs
[3rd pronoun + verb] té tres gossos Audio
she can speak German
[3rd pronoun + verb] sap parlar alemany Audio
we will not come late
[1st plural pronoun] no farem tard Audio
they bought milk and bread
[3rd plural pronoun] han comprat la llet i el pa Audio

The object pronoun is used as a target by a verb, and usually come after that verb. For example: I gave him my book. The object pronoun here is him. Here are more examples:

Object Pronouns - Catalan
can you tell me your name?
[1st object pronoun] em pot dir el seu nom? Audio
I will give you money
[2nd object pronoun] et donaré els diners Audio
she wrote him a letter
[3rd object pronoun] ella li va escriure una carta Audio
they visited her yesterday
[3rd object pronoun] la van visitar ahir Audio
can she help us?
[1st pl. object pronoun] ella pot ajudar-nos? Audio
he gave them food
[3rd pl. object pronoun] els van donar de menjar Audio

Possessive Pronouns - Catalan
my name is Maya
[1st possessive pronoun] em dic maya Audio
your brother lives here
[2nd possessive pronoun] el teu germà viu aquí Audio
her mother cooks for us
[3rd possessive pronoun] la seva mare cuina per a nosaltres Audio
his hobby is reading books
[3rd possessive pronoun] el seu passatemps és la lectura Audio
our dream is to visit Paris
[1st pl. possessive pronoun] el nostre somni és visitar parís Audio
their house is not far
[3rd pl. possessive pronoun] casa llur no és gaire lluny Audio

One more thing you need to know is the demonstrative pronouns. They're very easy to learn.

Demonstrative Pronouns - Catalan
this is my house aquesta és la meva casa Audio
that restaurant is far aquest restaurant és molt lluny Audio
these apples are delicious aquestes pomes són delicioses Audio
those stars are shiny els estels són brillants Audio

I hope you learned a lot about the Catalan grammar in this lesson. Please check out our main menu here for more lessons: homepage. The next lesson is below, have fun!

Inspirational Quote: First say to yourself what you would be; and then do what you have to do. Epictetus

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