Catalan Grammar

Welcome to the 8th lesson about Catalan grammar. We will first learn about prepositions, negation, questions, adverbs, and pronouns including: personal, object and possessive pronouns.

We will start with prepositions. In general, they are used to link words to other words. For example: I speak Catalan and English the preposition is [and] because it connects both words Catalan and English. The following is a list of the most used prepositions in Catalan.

Prepositions
Catalan
and
i Audio
above
per sobre de Audio
under
sota Audio
before
abans Audio
after
després de Audio
in front of
davant Audio
behind
darrere de Audio
far from
lluny de Audio
near
prop de Audio
in
a/en Audio
inside
dins/dintre Audio
outside
fora Audio
with
amb Audio
without
sense Audio
about
sobre Audio
between
entre Audio
but
però Audio
for
per Audio
from
de Audio
to
a Audio

Preposition Grammar Rules

The following examples use prepositions in different ways and places to demonstrate how they behave in a sentence.

Prepositions + Rules
Catalan
I eat without a knife
[preposition + noun]
menjo sense ganivet Audio
she lives near the church
[verb + preposition]
ella viu prop de l'església Audio
he is taller than her
[adjective + preposition]
ell és més alt que ella Audio
he came with his small dog
[preposition + pronoun]
ell va venir amb el seu gos petit Audio
can you come with me?
[preposition + pronoun]
pots venir amb mi? Audio

Negation in Catalan

Now let's learn how to make a negative sentence (negation). For example: Saying no, I can't, I don't ... The following examples use negation in different ways and places to demonstrate how they behave in a sentence.

Negation + Rules
Catalan
I understand you
[affirmative form]
t'entenc Audio
I don't understand you
[negation + verb]
no t'entenc Audio
this is not the correct word
[negation + adjective]
aquesta no és la paraula correcta Audio
don't leave me
[imperative negation]
no em deixis Audio
no problem
[negation + noun]
no hi ha cap problema Audio

Negative Sentences
Catalan
I don't speak French
[negation + present tense]
no parlo francès Audio
she didn't visit Germany
[negation + past tense]
ella no va visitar alemanya Audio
he cannot see us
[negative modal verb]
no ens pot veure Audio
can't she play chess?
[interrogative negation]
que sap jugar a escacs? Audio
we will not come late
[negation + future tense]
no farem tard Audio

Questions in Catalan

Now let's learn how to ask questions (interrogative). Such as: what, why, can you ...? Here are some common examples:

English
Catalan
how?
com? Audio
what?
què? Audio
who?
que? Audio
why?
per què? Audio
where?
on? Audio

More of the interrogative form, now in a sentence:

Questions + Rules
Catalan
where do you live?
[interrogative + verb]
on vius? Audio
does she speak Chinese?
[interrogative verb]
que parla xinès? Audio
how much is this?
[interrogative preposition]
quant és això? Audio
can I help you?
[interrogative modal verb]
puc ajudar en alguna cosa? Audio
what is your name?
[interrogative preposition]
com et dius? Audio

Adverbs in Catalan

It's time to learn the adverbs in Catalan. But what is an adverb? In general, adverbs modify verbs and adjectives. For example: You speak fast. The adverb is [fast] because it describes the verb and answers the question how do you speak?. Here is a list of the most common ones:

Adverbs
Catalan
now
ara Audio
yesterday
ahir Audio
today
avui Audio
tonight
aquesta nit Audio
tomorrow
demà Audio
soon
aviat Audio
quickly
ràpidament Audio
slowly
a poc a poc Audio
together
junts Audio
very
molt Audio
almost
gairebé Audio
always
sempre Audio
usually
habitualment Audio
sometimes
de vegades Audio
rarely
poques vegades Audio
never
mai Audio

The following examples use the adverbs in different ways and places to demonstrate how it behaves in a sentence.

Adverbs + Rules
Catalan
do you understand me now?
[pronoun + adverb]
m'entens ara? Audio
I need help immediately
[noun + adverb]
necessito ajuda immediata Audio
she is very intelligent
[adverb + adjective]
ella és molt intel·ligent Audio
I will always love you
[verb + adverb]
sempre t'estimaré Audio
can we learn German together?
[adverb in a question]
podem aprendre alemany junts? Audio

Pronouns in Catalan

We're almost done! This time we will learn the pronouns in Catalan. In general, a pronoun can be used instead of a noun. For example instead of saying my teacher speaks 3 languages, you can use the pronoun he, and say he speaks 3 languages. Here is a list of the most common ones:

Personal Pronouns
Catalan
I
jo Audio
you
tu/vostè/vosaltres Audio
he
ell Audio
she
ella Audio
we
nosaltres Audio
they
ells Audio

Object Pronouns
Catalan
me
mi Audio
you
tu/vostè/vosaltres Audio
him
ell Audio
her
ella Audio
us
nosaltres Audio
them
ells Audio

Possessive Pronouns
Catalan
my
el(s) meu(s)/la (les) meva (meves) Audio
your
el(s) teu(s)/la (les) teva (teves) Audio
his
el(s)seu(s)/ la (les) seva (seves) Audio
her
el(s) seu(s)/la (les)seva (seves) Audio
our
el (la) nostre/els (les) nostres Audio
their
el(s) seu(s)/la (les)seva (seves) Audio

I think it's better to put the above example in a sentence to better assist you. The following examples use pronouns in different ways and places to demonstrate how they behave in a sentence. We will start with the personal pronouns.

Personal Pronouns
Catalan
I am your friend
[1st pronoun + verb]
sóc el teu amic Audio
you speak very fast
[2nd pronoun + adverb]
vostè parla molt ràpid Audio
he has three dogs
[3rd pronoun + verb]
té tres gossos Audio
she can speak German
[3rd pronoun + verb]
sap parlar alemany Audio
we will not come late
[1st plural pronoun]
no farem tard Audio
they bought milk and bread
[3rd plural pronoun]
han comprat la llet i el pa Audio

The object pronoun is used as a target by a verb, and usually come after that verb. For example: I gave him my book. The object pronoun here is him. Here are more examples:

Object Pronouns
Catalan
can you tell me your name?
[1st object pronoun]
em pot dir el seu nom? Audio
I will give you money
[2nd object pronoun]
et donaré els diners Audio
she wrote him a letter
[3rd object pronoun]
ella li va escriure una carta Audio
they visited her yesterday
[3rd object pronoun]
la van visitar ahir Audio
can she help us?
[1st pl. object pronoun]
ella pot ajudar-nos? Audio
he gave them food
[3rd pl. object pronoun]
els van donar de menjar Audio

Possessive Pronouns
Catalan
my name is Maya
[1st possessive pronoun]
em dic maya Audio
your brother lives here
[2nd possessive pronoun]
el teu germà viu aquí Audio
her mother cooks for us
[3rd possessive pronoun]
la seva mare cuina per a nosaltres Audio
his hobby is reading books
[3rd possessive pronoun]
el seu passatemps és la lectura Audio
our dream is to visit Paris
[1st pl. possessive pronoun]
el nostre somni és visitar parís Audio
their house is not far
[3rd pl. possessive pronoun]
casa llur no és gaire lluny Audio

One more thing you need to know is the demonstrative pronouns. They're very easy to learn.

Demonstrative Pronouns
Catalan
this is my house
aquesta és la meva casa Audio
that restaurant is far
aquest restaurant és molt lluny Audio
these apples are delicious
aquestes pomes són delicioses Audio
those stars are shiny
els estels són brillants Audio

I hope you learned a lot about the Catalan grammar in this lesson. If you have any question about this lesson please contact me here. The next lesson is below, have fun!

Catalan Phrases   Catalan Phrases

Catalan Vocabulary   Catalan Vocabulary



Share

Inspirational Quote: First say to yourself what you would be; and then do what you have to do. Epictetus